Methods, Definitions, and The Basic
Since its birth until today, Christianity has been in the context of “pluralism” that
the beliefs are very diverse (Carson 270-272) . These conditions are of course become serious
challenge to the claims of truth and the existence of Christianity. However, these challenges
have led to a response from believers who gave birth to Christian apologetics.
The word " apologetics" is derived from the ancient Greek word apologia which generally
means “defense ". The verb form is Apologoumai which means “doing a defense ".
(Sproul, Gerstner dan Lindsley 20).
So, Christian apologetics is primarily a defense of the doctrine and practice of the
Christian life of the person who do not believe. As a defense of the Christian faith effort,
apologetics is closely related to the problem methods he uses. As in a war, strategy is an
important requirement to win the battle, as well as in apologetics, the method is a vital
element in the effort to win souls for Christ. This statement does not mean that the effort of
believers through apologetics is a decisive factor in the success of evangelism.
The Bible clearly states that only the Holy Spirit regenerates the unbeliever and makes it
accepts Christ. (Hoekema 48)
However, as Christians who become co-workers of God, we are called to participate
in getting the best apologetics method we can do in certain situations. We must remember
that the Holy Spirit does not work contrary to our efforts, but through our efforts.
Towards the end of the twentieth century, Steven B. Cowan may have made a recent
classification of the methods of apologetics. He divides apologetics existing methods with a
distinguishing criterion describes as “argumentative strategy ". what argumentative strategies
means are A different types or structures of argumentation in presenting Christianity.
Cowan apologetics split into five main methods: Classical, Evidential, Cumulative Case,
Presupposisitional and Reformed Epistemology. (D. K. Clark 103--109)
Four first method is a method of apologetics competing to achieve excellence through the
early 1980s -’s. Furthermore, methods of apologetics Reformed Epistemology just appeared
in the middle of the development of philosophy and apologetics in the last twenty years.
(Plantinga dan Woltrestorff)
Concise description of each method is as follows (Cowan.B 15-20) :
1. First, the method of “Classical.” This apologetic method start by
proving that theism is an insight into the world (worldview) is true. Next,
the adherents of this method will present historical evidence for the deity of
Christ and the trustworthiness of the Bible. This is done to show that
Christianity is the best version of theism. (J. K. Clark)
2. Second, the method of “Evidential.” This method has much in common with
the Classical method except in seeing the value of miracles as evidence.
Classical adherents generally believe that miracles presupposes...