Biblical Literary Criticism: Higher Criticism Essay

1511 words - 6 pages

INTRODUCTION
“Biblical criticism” refers to various methods of studying and investigating the textual content of the Bible. In general, it just describes examining the Bible in a scholarly and critical manner. Therefore when the term “critic” or “criticism” is used in this way it does not essentially denote something negative, but rather a close consideration of the authenticity and historicity of the Biblical text. These literary critics also look into the origins and purposes of the books of the Bible. It is highly important for one to realize that not all literary criticism of the Bible is wrong or harmful.#
“Higher Criticism” and “Lower Criticism” are two main branches of Biblical criticism. “Lower Criticism” is the branch that studies the various textual troubles and weighs out the evidence to determine the most accurate textual reading. On the other hand, “Higher Criticism” is the specific study of dates, authorship, origins and overall genuineness of the books. A great amount of Higher criticism concerns the Old Testament, especially the first five books. Let us consider the nature Higher criticism and the fallacy of liberal Higher criticism.

BIBLICAL LITERARY CRITICISM: HIGHER CRITICISM
Sadly, most Biblical critics approach the Bible with assumptions. First, many assume that there is no such thing as predictive prophecy. Second, a majority assumes the falsehood of miraculous activity of any kind or time period. In the third place, many of them come to the study denying the concept of inspiration or direct revelation from God.# Due to critics of this sort with their presumptions and rationalist mindset, in many cases higher criticism has grown into something one might call “destructive criticism”. Higher critics maintain various radical theories and they have developed different aspects of Biblical criticism. There is source criticism, form criticism, tradition criticism, and redaction criticism. Consider these four aspects as they relate to the Pentateuch (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy).
Source Criticism
In source criticism, critics seek to discover the source or sources of a biblical book. Critics tell us that there are four main underlying sources for the Pentateuch. Four documents that supposedly formed the five books, known by the symbols J, E, D, and P. The letter J represents the name YAHWEH or Jehovah, the name the liberal critics claim can only found in the writings of the ambiguous J author. E refers to the Elohist source, distinguished by its
frequent use of the Hebrew name Elohim for Deity. The Deuteronomist source is represented by the letter D and associated with the book of Deuteronomy. P is the Priestly document or source. The four were allegedly constructed chronologically in order in which they are listed-JEDP.
Form Criticism
The form critic...

Find Another Essay On Biblical Literary Criticism: Higher Criticism

Marxist Literary Theory and Criticism Essay

1718 words - 7 pages highly and appreciated 19th century literature except for Dostoyevsky and Goncharov. Ironically, as we will see later, those writers lead people by their great masterpieces to believe in Communism and their cause. (Cuddon 493)A prominent figure in Marxist literary criticism history is Georg Lukacs. He is the first major Marxist critic. He believes that literature is not supposed to alienate an already alienated audience, i.e. alienated by

Feminist Literary Criticism and Lysistrata Essay

1835 words - 7 pages became central to early feminist investigations” (132). Despite this absence of female writers, feminist critics analyze the role of women in ancient Greece in other ways. Recently, feminist writers have been able to delve further into the classical period by examining female characters from the works of male playwrights. The construction of women in male literature is extremely important. Peter Barry, in his chapter on feminist literary criticism

The Importance of Distinction in Literary Theory and Criticism

1385 words - 6 pages by the faults and follies of earthly existence, consecrated by time (Whipple 386). This particular description on the importance of books, fantastic as it is, can also easily be applied to the broader spectrum that books belong to, literature. Thus, it is easy to understand why such emphasis is placed on the “exegesis, interpretation, and evaluation, [of literature]” otherwise called literary criticism and/or theory (Groden , Kreiswirth and

Literary Criticism of Wollstonecraft's Maria, or The Wrongs of Woman

645 words - 3 pages Literary Criticism of Wollstonecraft's Maria, or The Wrongs of Woman "Contradictory words seem a little crazy to the logic of reason and inaudible for him who listens with ready-made grids, a code prepared in advance . . . One must listen to her (Maria) in order to hear an "other meaning" which is constantly in the process of weaving itself, the same time ceaselessly embracing words and yet casting them off to avoid becoming fixed

Literary Criticism- Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley

742 words - 3 pages Literary Criticism- Brave New WorldA Utopia is a world that is completely controlled by the government. The government controls every aspect of life in a utopia, and therefore everyone is always happy. In the novel "Brave New World" by Aldous Huxley the setting is a utopia. In this world people are constantly happy, babies are cloned, and, 'everyone belongs to everyone else.' The criticism which I chose was written by Margaret Cheney Dawson, on

Literary Criticism of Matthew Lewis’ Novel, The Monk

1054 words - 4 pages Literary Criticism of Matthew Lewis’ Novel, The Monk Elliot B. Gose's essay "The Monk," from Imagination Indulged: The Irrational in the Nineteenth-Century Novel, is a psychological survey of Matthew Lewis' novel The Monk. Gose uses Freud's and Jung's psychological theories in his analysis of The Monk's author and characters. To understand Gose's ideas, we must first contextualize his conception of Freud's and Jung's theories. According

Margit Stange’s Literary Criticism of Chopin’s The Awakening

795 words - 3 pages Margit Stange’s Literary Criticism of Chopin’s The Awakening Margit Stange makes a series of meaningful connections between Kate Chopin’s dramatization of Edna Pontellier’s “awakening” and the historical context of feminist thought which Stange believes influenced the novel. Part of understanding Edna’s motives and Chopin’s thinking are Stange’s well-chosen references to the contemporary ideology that shapes Edna’s thinking and her choices

Satire and Hypocrisy: Literary Criticism of Lewis’ The Monk

689 words - 3 pages Satire and Hypocrisy: Literary Criticism of Lewis’ The Monk In her essay "Satire in The Monk: Exposure and Reformation", Campbell strives to portray Matthew Lewis' The Monk as a work that is full of and dependent upon satire, yet marks a significant departure from the tradition thereof. Campbell asserts that satire "forcibly exposes an essential quality of an institution, class, etc., which individuals associated with the ridiculed body have

Huck Finn Literary criticism

743 words - 3 pages black people because he developed characters such as Pap, the King and the Duke who were thieves that pretended to be educated to con money from naïve townspeople. Ellison shows what Jim’s stereotype is based off of in his criticism: “Writing at a time when the blackfaced minstrel was still popular, and shortly after a war which left even the abolitionists weary of those problems associated with the Negro, Twain fitted Jim into the outlines of the

Poe, The Narrator and Literary Criticism in Poe’s “The Tell-Tale Heart”

1146 words - 5 pages Edgar Allen Poe has explored three different themes: His own life, the nameless narrator of “The Tell-Tale Heart”, and the literary criticism on “The Tell-Tale Heart.” The Tell-Tale Heart, is a story, although, not revealed, about father-son incest (Kachur). Throughout the story, the old man was the “eye”, or “vulture’s eye” as the narrator calls it. The “eye” is what kept the narrator unnerved, and was the main reason that drove him to kill the

Choose a form of literary Criticism to which 'Paste' by Henry James can be giving a succesful reading

2037 words - 8 pages This essay will be using the liberal humanist approach to literary criticism when considering Paste by Henry James. Thus nothing will be considered other than the text as it appears on the page. F.R Leavis remarks upon the importance of this in The Common Pursuit:the fashionable admirers of James, who, indeed, assumed them to be the supreme expression of his genius, but seem quite incapable of suggesting either any intelligible grounds for the

Similar Essays

Archetypal Literary Criticism Essay

1762 words - 7 pages In Literary Criticism, there is an idea that believes that Archetypes make up literature’s meaning. The concept of Archetypes in literature has been the subject of extensive examination in Literary Criticism. “Criticism can be broken down into two broad categories: evaluative and interpretive” (Gardner 1287). The criticism is based on Literary Theory, which is composed of ideas that help interpret, and analyze literature. Everything in

Comradery Literary Criticism Essay

2077 words - 9 pages Criticism Reader respond criticism is an approach which amended in about 1970s. It is one of literary criticism approach which is introduced by Louise Rosenblatt. Louise Rosenblatt, Norman Holland, David Bleich, and Stanley Fish define it as “the process of literary reading as a communicative event or an experience of self-knowledge” (2010: Rhetoric Review p.152). It appeared against the domination of New Criticism approach. New Criticism tends to

Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism Essay

2648 words - 11 pages psychoanalytic literary criticism theory based upon the works of psychoanalysis by famous psychologists Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Jacques Lacan to literary works. 'Psychoanalytic literary criticism does not constitute a unified field....However, all variants endorse, at least to a certain degree, the idea that literature...is fundamentally entwined with the psyche' (wiki).The three literary works which will be analyzed in this essay

Feminist Literary Criticism Essay

692 words - 3 pages Feminist criticism was presented all throughout the past by men, until the time of 1920’s. Women have been denied from social power and did not have a voice. Their jobs were to clean, take care of their husbands, and children. According to Donald Hall in his book, Literary and Cultural Theory, he states, “Language, institutions, and social power structures have reflected patriarchal interests throughout much of history; this has a profound