Author’s Credentials and Other Information
Connie M. Ulrich, PhD, RN is an associate Professor of Bioethics and Nursing center for Bioethics, Department of Medical Ethics, and Senior Fellow. Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, New Courtland Center for Transitions and Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Carol Taylor PhD, RN is the Director for the Center for Bioethics at Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia. Karen Soeken PhD is a Professor Emeritus at the University Of Maryland School Of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland. Patricia O’Donnell MSW, PhD is the director for the Center for Ethics, Inova Health Systems, Fairfax, Virginia. Adrienne Farrar MSW, PhD is the Chief at the Department of Social Work, Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Marion Danis MSW, MD is Head Section on Ethics and Health Policy, at the Department of Social Work, Clinical Center, at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.. Christine Grady PhD, RN is Head Section on Human Subjects Research, and Acting Chief at the Department of Bioethics, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
Type of Research: Quantitative or Qualitative
This research article is a quantitative study. Quantitative studies explain, predict and/or control phenomena through focused collection of numerical, mathematical, statistical, and computational data.
Research Questions or Hypotheses
There was no research question or hypothesis.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study “was to describe the type, frequency and level of stress of ethical issues encountered by nurses in their everyday practice” (Connie, et al., 2010, p. 2512).
Sample Participants: Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
The sample consisted of 422 registered nurses. A state licensing list was used to select participants. Inclusion criteria included: registered nurses from four different states in the four census regions of the United States (California, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Ohio). No exclusion criteria was mentioned.
Major findings of the Study Related to the Purpose and Research Questions
The major findings of this study related to the purpose; were that nurses identify preserving patient’s rights and autonomy as one of the major ethical dilemmas most frequently encountered in their everyday practice. However, that being said, the under staffing of nurses was...