Bilogy: Dna Fingerprinting Essay

1244 words - 5 pages

DNA Fingerprinting
When you were born you were given your own DNA. The genetic information you carry is very similar to your parents. Even though you and your parents have very similar DNA you also have genetic differences, one example is your fingerprint no one but yourself will have your unique fingerprint pattern.
Police use what is called DNA Fingerprinting to extensively investigate crime scenes. DNA in/on a crime scene can be found through the process of DNA Fingerprinting. Police collect evidence from the crime scene to take in for testing. When the testing is complete the police know who the criminal is by their fingerprint. DNA Fingerprinting has also proven effective with miss person cases.
“The concept of DNA profiling was developed by British scientist Alec Jeffreys and first presented to the public by him in 1984.” DNA Fingerprinting has helped solve thousands of murder cases. The first ever use of DNA Fingerprinting was to solve a criminal case that occurred in England in 1987. The case was that two teenage girls were raped and murdered on different dates, in English villages nearby. The first occurrence was in 1983, the second occurrence was in 1986. Police were able to apprehend to criminal [Colin Pitchfork] by obtaining a sample of semen that was left at both crime scenes. DNA Fingerprinting also helps exonerate (to clear or absolve from blame or a criminal charge) people. The first “criminal” to be exonerated was Richard Buckland; he was the primary suspect of a serial murder case. With the use of DNA Fingerprinting the police were able to determine that Buckland committed none of the murders and was set free (DNA Fingerprinting).
“The blotting is procedure is named differently depending on the type of the molecules being transferred. When the molecules to be transferred are DNA fragments, the procedure is called a southern blot” (Blotting). Scientists and geneticist call this method the Southern blot in honor of the founder of it; Edward Southern a molecular biologist at Oxford University. There are a total of four steps in order to complete the Southern blot process.
“The first step in completing the Southern blot; is the DNA (genomic or other source) is digested with a restriction enzyme and separated by gel electrophoresis, usually an agarose gel.” Then the DNA is transported to a membrane which is a sheet of blotting paper. The DNA fragments retain the same pattern of separation they had on the gel.” The blot is then incubated (to maintain at a favorable temperature and in other conditions promoting development) with many copies of a probe. The probe will then form base pairs with its complementary DNA sequence. The final step in the Southern blot process is to find the location of the probe which has been incubating with a colorless substrate that the attached enzyme converts to a colored product; this will give off a light which will expose X-ray film. If the probe is labeled with radioactivity, it can...

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