Bio Essay On Vaccines

857 words - 4 pages

A vaccine is a manufactured drug, that helps your body fight of certain diseases, a vaccine is usually made by using a weak version of the virus or illness that is taken into the body so that your white blood cells can get trained for when the actual threat comes. The website www.wikipedia.com defines a virus as "A biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins." The first ever vaccine was created at around 1796 by a man named Edward Jenner who created a vaccine for smallpox by using cowpox. He did this by observing that those who have had cowpox couldn’t get smallpox. He tested it first on an eight year old infant where he infected him with cowpox and once he was cured he infected him with smallpox and the child did not show symptoms. This procedure was not so risky because the effects of cowpox were not fatal but smallpox was. Vaccines these days have evolved mainly because of the introduction of microscopes and biological engineering into the medicine fields. There are three types of vaccines used these days live or attenuated vaccine, killed vaccines and toxoid vaccine.

Live or attenuated vaccine is a vaccine made by weakening or even removing the harmful parts of a pathogen or virus. This type of vaccine is used as a practice round of sorts to help the bodies immune system develop a way to fight the inert pathogen before an active one invades the body.These vaccines are made by passing through foreign hosts for example Tissue culture,Embryonated eggs and Live animals.Examples of these vaccines are measles vaccine,mumps vaccine,rubella vaccine,Live attenuated influenza vaccine.These vaccines have certain advantages and disadvantages. The advantages fully activates the immune system,cheap to produce,works quickly,Easy to administer (eg. oral). The disadvantages are can mutate on its own,can cause complications in immunocompromised patients,difficult to transport because of specific conditions.

Killed vaccines are grown in a laboratory where they are then killed in order to stop it from replicating. Even though it is dead the pathogen is still recognised by the immune system as a threat, causing the immune system to learn how to fight it. This vaccine is killed by extreme heat,Extreme cold,formaldehyde. A few examples of these vaccines are polio vaccine (Salk vaccine),influenza vaccine,typhoid vaccine,cholera vaccine,Bubonic plague vaccine and pertussis vaccine. These vaccines have certain advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are no risk of becoming...

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