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Bio Outline

5257 words - 21 pages

BIOLOGY 220 OUTLINE SECTION II Text: Essential Cell Biology I. Opening Comments (Chapter 3) A. Life creates order out of disorder through a never-ending series of chemical reactions B. This is Metabolism and the ability to Metabolize C. Most of the chemical reactions required by the cell would not occur at physiological conditions D. Control of these reactions is achieved by specialized protein, ENZYMES.II. Basic Principles of Energy A. Energy - Basics Principles 1. Define Energy - ability to do work 2. Define Work - the ability to change the way matter is arranged 3. Define Kinetic Energy 4. Define Potential energy - energy of position 5. FIRST LAW of THERMODYNAMICS -Energy can be transferred or transformed by never created or destroyed.6. Explain transferred or transformed -Different kinds of energy a. Radiant (solar) b. Chemical (e.g. gasoline, carbohydrates, fats) c. Mechanical (involves movement) d. Atomic.7. SECOND LAW of THERMODYNAMICS - In any energy transformation or transfer some energy is lost to the surrounding environment as heat.a. Define Entropy b. 2nd Law says - ENTROPY IS INCREASING c. ADD HEAT LOSS TO ENERGY DIAGRAM ABOVE.B. The Concept of Free Energy 1. Free energy - the portion of a systems energy that can perform work given constant T throughout system (e.g., living cell) 2. Total free energy of a system (G) is define by this equation G = H - TS a. H = total energy of system = ENTHALPY b. T = absolute temp in K (KELVINS) (° C + 273) c. S = entropy d. Note that T increases value of S since as Heat increases, molecular motion increases, and disorder increases.3. Spontaneous Processes a. Definition - occur w/o outside help (energy) - energy of system is sufficient to carry out reaction or process b. Is not concerned with rate or time, so spontaneous processes will not necessarily occur in a useful time frame 4. Determining when a system can undergo spontaneous change a. Stability b. The change in Free Energy is negative for spontaneous systems .G = Gfinal state - Ginitial state or .DG = DH - TDS III. Basics of Chemical Reactions A.All reactions require an input of energy to get them started 1. ENERGY OF ACTIVATION or ACTIVATION ENERGY a. Define Activation Energy with overhead b. For some reactions the activation energy can be provided by the reacting molecules themselves.c. For others, the activation is very high since the reacting molecules must be brought together in exactly the right orientation in order for the reaction to take place ("effective collision")..B.Enzymes reduce activation energy (Chap5. p. 167-69) 1. Define Catalyst 2. Define Substrate 3. Random interactions lead to Enzyme-Substrate Complex formation (effective collision) 4. Enzymes reduce activation energy by a. Increasing the number of effective collisions between substrates 5. Enzymes are proteins a. review structure of proteins.6. Define Active Site a. Active Site can function by (1) shape similarities (2) chemical attraction (3) both b. Example:...

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