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Biographie Jean Paul Sartre Essay

1358 words - 5 pages

La notion de liberté a évolué à travers le temps et a été étudiée par différents philosophes. Elle est de façon incontestable une valeur universelle, mais n'est toutefois pas un concept univoque. Dans ce texte, la liberté selon Sartre sera étudiée. La biographie de Jean-Paul Sartre sera d'abord abordée suivie d'une présentation de la liberté et de ses différentes formes. Par la suite, la conception de l'auteur par rapport au thème sera analysée et, pour terminer, les ressemblances et différences entre la vision de Sartre et les visions des autres philosophes au sujet de la liberté seront présentées.BiographiePhilosophe, écrivain et dramaturge, Jean-Paul Sartres est né le 21 juin 1905 à Paris. Issu d'une famille de bourgeois, son père décède alors que le jeune Sartres n'a que 15 mois. Sa mère et lui vont donc vivre chez les parents de celle-ci, le grand-père fera alors figure paternel pendant l'enfance de Sartres. Il écrit, dans Les mots, « Jusqu'à 10 ans, je restai seul avec un vieillard et deux femmes. »L'enfance de Sartres peut se résumer à la découverte des livres et de sa laideur physique, lui qui présente un fort strabisme de l'œil droit, ce qui jouera un grand rôle dans sa vie, tant au niveau de ses rapports philosophiques que ses écrits. Pour compenser, il se réfugie dès son jeune âge dans les livres et la culture.En 1920, sa mère l'envoie étudier au lycée Henri-IV, où il rencontre Paul Nizan. Il est reçu en 1924 à l'École Normale Supérieure, où il vit 4 ans d'indépendance, période heureuse pour ce dernier. Il y travaille énormément, préparant l'agrégation de philosophie et se découvrant une passion pour la question du visible dans son diplôme d'étude supérieur intitulé L'Image dans la vie psychologique : rôle et nature.En 1928, il échoue à l'écrit de l'agrégation mais est reçu premier l'année suivante. Il fait alors la connaissance de Simone de Beauvoir, qui aura une grande influence dans sa vie et dans sa philosophie et avec qui il sera en relation jusqu'à sa mort. Après son service militaire, en 1931, il est nommé professeur de philosophie au lycée du Havre, période de remise en question pour lui, alors que tous ses écrits sont refusés par les éditeurs et qu'il tombe de plain-pied dans la vie réelle, le travail et la vie quotidienne. Il continue à écrire et lire cependant beaucoup durant ces années, mais il faut attendre en 1933 avant sa découverte. En 1938,...

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