This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Biological And Environmental Factors That Affect Cocaine Sensitivity In Macaques

922 words - 4 pages

Psychostimulant research is quite pertinent considering that the number of new cocaine uses has more than doubled in the last decade. Dr. Paul Czoty’s lab looks at monkey models in order to better understand the neurological mechanisms underlying cocaine abuse. In the seminar, Dr. Czoty outlined the advantages to animal models and discussed the biological and environmental factors that were shown to affect cocaine sensitivity in macaques.
The brain has two main dopamine systems, the Nigrostriatal and the Mesolimbic. These systems have a variety of functions including motor control, learning, memory, hormone secretion and retinal function. Cocaine inhibits dopamine reuptake increasing the lifespan and abundance of dopamine near the receptors. The three types of animal models are predictive, isomorphic and homologous. The numerous advantages to animal models include compliance and a lack of confounding variables. In human drug abusers, the duration of use is often unknown, other drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes may influence results, self-reports may not be accurate and the placebo effect may cause bias. With animal models, there can be repeated testing and the subjects always show up.
It is interesting to note that invasive research on apes such as gorillas and chimpanzees has been limited because of ethical concerns, since they are so closely related to humans. Macaques, such as the rhesus monkey are often used instead. Nonhuman primates are quite similar to humans, can be trained to perform complex tasks and allow for long-term drug studies. With intravenous drug self-administration, the drug to be studied serves as a reinforcer. Subcutaneous vascular access ports placed near the spine of the monkey allows for simplified IV administration. The macaques may be tethered or socially housed. Social housing allows for several variables not seen in the tethered animals.
The monkeys were first individually housed for 10 months and given a PET scan with fluroclebopride, a D2 radioligand. The monkeys were then placed in social housing with 3 others. The subcutaneous access ports allowed monkeys to self-administer cocaine by pressing a lever. The amount was monitored and monkeys were given another PET scan.
Self-administration, combined with brain imaging has given scientists insights into where the cocaine acts in the brain and any long term consequences. Learning about these changes may aid in the development of drugs designed to treat cocaine addiction. PET scans radioactively label molecules of interest with a positron, the emission signal arises within the subject and the tomographic image depicts the brain in 3D. An MRI and PET scan combined can give even clearer results. A tissue-time activity curve demonstrates the distribution volume ratio, or the ratio of binding of radioligand in the basal ganglia to the cerebellum.
Vulnerability refers to genetic or environmental factors that predispose a subject to drug abuse. Anecdotally,...

Find Another Essay On Biological and Environmental Factors That Affect Cocaine Sensitivity in Macaques

factors that affect the awareness on environmental issues: a case study at utem malacca city campus

1648 words - 7 pages institutions in Malaysia. (Abdul Latiff Ahmad, Samsudin A. Rahim, Latifah Pawanteh & Fauziah Ahmad, 2012) Therefore, it is crucial for us to create awareness and identify the factors that can create the awareness on the environment. In view of these facts, it is imperative to conduct a study on the factors that affect Universiti Teknikal Malaysia (UTeM) Malacca City Campus students’ awareness on environment in order to understand the above issue in depth

Business Cycles and the factors in our market that affect these cycles

5598 words - 22 pages expansion of the economy has just begun. Many different factors in the economy are beginning to rise and fall slowly, which indicates that the economy is slowly improving. Unemployment will start to gradually fall while production in the economy will increase. A recession indicates that the economy is in a contraction phase, in which the economic activity is decreasing. Unemployment rate will rise significantly and production will usually fall. A

Factors That Affect Bystander Behavior in Criminal Situations

886 words - 4 pages This essay will give examples and discuss the factors which can affect bystander behaviour in various situations. Models explaining theories will be looked at along with various studies, as well as looking at the three social cognitive processes by Latane and Darley and explain how these were put together to propose a complex cognitive model. The essay will explain the Arousal cost reward model by Piliavin and Piliavin. After the murder of

Identify between four and seven factors that affect contemporary projects

2398 words - 10 pages Project 2 Project 2Identify between four and seven factors that affect contemporary projects.2105 wordsExecutive SummaryThis paper discusses the meaning of Project Management as discussed by Meredith and Mantle of our Management text book. "Projects are large-scale, typically expensive, one of a kind endeavor that may require months or years to complete and involve major portions of an organization's resources." Project manager is a manager

Sociol economic factors that can affect health and illness

1645 words - 7 pages In society today there are many social-economic factors that may influence an individual's health and illness. Thinking about health, it is acceptable in today's society that health is not a fixed thing. More aches and pains come as people get older and this is accepted as a normal part of ageing, but these aches and pains for a younger person are not accepted as normal."It has been argued by many sociologists that what has been considered to be

Environmental Factors That Cause Cancer in Young Children

731 words - 3 pages then she lived in Russia and worked at a farm, where the environment wasn't as clean as it supposed to be. However my main goal of this research is to answer the question “What are the environmental factors that cause cancer in children? I wanted to know the main factors and the main causes of cancer, and what are the ways of preventing it. According to researchers the main environmental factors are smoke, food, and radiation. First, I researched

"A number of important biological, learning, emotional and environmental factors combine in various ways to produce aggression in various situations." Discuss

1264 words - 5 pages than self-destructive, but agreed with Darwin in saying that aggression is instinctual. Many psychologists have different views on aggression but it is true however, that the factors that contribute to aggression are those of biological, learning, emotional and environmental."In all of nature, there is nothing so threatening to humanity as humanity itself." (Thomas, Lewis, 1981). Human aggression dates back to our primate ancestors. There is

Factors that affect the spending behavior

1244 words - 5 pages To obtain the needed information and data, the researchers conducted a survey between the selected college students of De La Salle Lipa. This is to gather the needed information on The Factors that Affect the Spending Behavior of a College Student. The researchers made use of Descriptive research method in collecting data and for the questionnaires. Survey questions/questionnaires were used for the collection of information. It was prepared by

Factors that affect teen sex behavior

758 words - 3 pages behavior has becoming common issue everywhere. Among some of the factors that cause teen sex behavior that plague the world today are family stability, media and religion. As we all know, family plays a significant role in teens’ life as it will cause a great impact on their emotions and characters when they are still in the growing and learning stage. However nowadays, teens get neglected or feel unloved and uncared most of the times as their parents

The environmental factors that effect turnip peroxidase

2009 words - 8 pages Four environmental factors of enzymes were tested in lab. The changing of pH, substrate concentrations, temperature, and an inhibitor (NaCl) and the effects it hade on the enzyme turnip peroxidase. Enzymes are biological catalysts which increase reaction rates by lowering the activation energies of substrates. A substrate is a reactant that interacts with the enzyme. The enzyme and substrate can be viewed as the recently discovered "induced fit

Enzyme-controlled reaction, factors that affect the chemical structure and properties of the enzyme

738 words - 3 pages Write an explanation of how any two factors affect the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction. How do these factors affect the chemical structureand properties of the enzyme.Many things can affect the rate of enzyme activity. The temperature of the enzyme, the pH of the solution, the concentration of the enzyme, substrate and the product. Also, another affector is the number of competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.As I cannot explain them

Similar Essays

Environmental Factors That Affect Global And Domestic Marketing Decisions

1437 words - 6 pages Environmental Factors that affect Global and Domestic Marketing Decisions Every company global or domestic has external factors that exist that eventually have an effect on the company’s operations. Some of these external factors can be controlled but a larger portion is uncontrollable and yet they can be managed and or influenced by the company. These specific factors make up the marketing environment in which a company has environmental

Factors That Affect The Growth In Duckweed

2339 words - 9 pages Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed Introduction ============ For healthy growth plants need several substances. Three important mineral ions that can only be obtained from the soil through their roots are nitrates, phosphates and potassium. Nitrates are essential for making amino acids and for the 'synthesis' of proteins. Phosphates are essential as they have an important role in reactions involved in

Factors That Affect Profitability Essay

1449 words - 6 pages Procedures that you need to follow when exporting After establishing that South Korea is an economy with an increasingly more liberal economy, there are some problems for foreign direct investment, mainly through non-transparency and burdensome regulations (Heritage Foundation). In order to take it a step further and to perform a complete analysis of the business environment, it is necessary to compare the business procedures when doing

Factors That Affect Student Motivation Essay

3265 words - 13 pages Factors That Affect Student Motivation Student motivation can be affected by several factors. These elements include parent involvement, teacher enthusiasm, rewards, peers, the learner’s environment, personal experiences, personal interests of the student, and self-esteem and self-image. Components such as these weigh heavily on the understanding and importance of learning to the student. These aspects aid in creating lifelong learners