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Biological And Ethical Benefits And Drawbacks Of Undergoing Surrogacy

2286 words - 10 pages

Surrogacy is an arrangement of assisted reproductive treatment (ART) in which a surrogate mother carriers and delivers a child for another individual or couple, also known as intended parent(s). After delivery, the birth mother surrenders the infant permanently to the intended parent(s) (Ciccarelli et al. 2005). The reasons of intended parent(s) to commission towards surrogacy could be due to damaged or absent uterus, failing of embryo transfer, medical condition prohibiting pregnancy, hysterectomy routine or repeated miscarriage (Stafford-Bell et al. 2001). This procedure allows the infertile couples, individuals involved in same-sex relationships to raise their own child who is ...view middle of the document...

The relinquishment of the child can be an intense experience for the surrogate mother since surrogacy can disintegrate the foetal maternal bonding (Tieu et al. 2007). The bond created between the surrogate mother and child can potentially be challenging due to the separation of the emotional attachment/bond that has been made. Surrogacy has some threat at the social level as certain society has simply regarded the role of a surrogate mother as being equal to a prostitute. This is implicated as surrogates undertake this arrangement for altruistic concerns, and mostly, for the providence of monetary benefits. Some surrogate mothers are empathetic towards infertile couples as they want to provide them the opportunity to experience parenthood which commonly enhances the surrogate’s self-esteem (van den Akker et al. 2003).

Potential benefits offered by surrogacy arrangements are to provide an opportunity for infertile and intended parent(s) to have a biological child. Surrogacy is popular for same-sex couples as this process provides them a route to parenthood. This arrangement enables the intended couple/individual to be involved in the entire pregnancy process. Surrogacy also provides assurance to the intended parent(s) that this process is a worthwhile option to partake in as the success rates are positive (Stafford-Bell et al. 2001). Stafford-Bell also claimed that this positive success rate is due to large quantity of embryo transfers in surrogates which causes higher rates of pregnancies. A study was conducted to identify the differences of implantation rates in gestational carriers and egg recipients. Uterine receptivity is the indication from the endometrium (lining of the womb) for a successful embryo implant and pregnancy to commence (Chien et al. 2002). It was suggested that the infertility of the egg recipient group was due their eggs and impairment of their uterine receptivity. The gestational carriers are multiparous women who are assumed to have optimum in their uterine receptivity which causes them to have successful rates of pregnancies (Stafford-Bell et al. 2001). In this case, one of the benefits of gestational surrogates being involved in surrogacy is to provide infertile parent(s) a child that is genetically related to them. Certain cultures, such as the Torrens Strait Islanders, also practise inter-family adoption and surrogacy as it is their custom to maintain the family bloodline and have balanced distribution of males and females within families (Kirkman et al. 2010). Research shows that more than a quarter of children below 15 are not living with their biological parents within the year of 2006 (Australian Government 2009).

Since surrogacy involves extremely controversial and complex procedure, disadvantages with fertility treatments and procedures (such as Intrauterine Insemination) are involved. Another major disadvantage is surrogates experience much difficulty and psychological issues by facing the relinquishment of...

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