Biology 1103 Long Answer Questions 1 Douglas Assignment

872 words - 4 pages

1) Explain the process by which oxygen in the atmosphere is inhaled. Describe in detail, the route this oxygen will follow to end up in the alveoli. Explain in detail how the oxygen enters the blood, how it is transported in the blood, and the route that it follow to ultimately be delivered to the gastrocnemius muscle. In the muscle there is an open wound. Describe in detail, the mechanism of clotting of blood to prevent bleeding and describe the role of red blood cells and other components of the blood in this clotting mechanism.
*Specify the major vessels and structures oxygen travels through, major arteries, veins, chambers of the heart, heart valve. How oxygen moves through membranes and how it is carried in the blood. The route that oxygen takes as it passes through the respiratory tract from the atmosphere, and the muscular action which moves oxygen into the lungs. The process of respiration, mechanism that control or influence breathing. In detail describe blood clotting.

Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. Oxygen enters the respiratory system through the mouth and the nose, once here it is 1) warmed, 2) moistened 3) filtered. The nostrils are lined by skin containing coarse hairs that filter out large dust particles. Air is also warmed as well as inhaled air whirls around the concahe and is warmed by blood in the capillaries. The oxygen then passes through the larynx (where speech sounds are produced) and the trachea which is a tube that enters the chest cavity. In the chest cavity, the trachea splits into two smaller tubes called the bronchi. Each bronchus then divides again forming the bronchial tubes. The bronchial tubes lead directly into the lungs. Each lung is enclosed and protected by a double layered serous membrane called the pleural membrane. The superficial layer is called parietal pleura, and the deep layer is called the visceral pleura. The lung is divided into many smaller tubes which connect to tiny sacs called alveoli. The inhaled oxygen passes into the alveoli and then diffuses through the capillaries into the arterial blood. Meanwhile, the waste-rich blood from the veins releases its carbon dioxide into the alveoli. The carbon dioxide follows the same path out of the lungs when you exhale. When oxygen enters the blood it is oxygenated rich because it filtered in the lungs. When oxygen wants to enter the blood certain chemical reactions occur that aid in the gas transport and exchange. Oxygen then needs to enter the blood, but oxygen does not dissolve easily in water, so only about 1.5% of this inhaled oxygen is dissolved...

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