Biology Essay

726 words - 3 pages

CHAPTER 7 VOCAB Acetyl-CoA- forms when a acetyl group combines with coenzyme A.Adenosine diphosphate- has two attached phosphate groups.Adenosine monophosphate- has one attached phosphate group.Adenosine triphosphate- usable energy stored in a molecule.Aerobic respiration- occurs when pyruvic acid is metabolized using oxygen.Alcoholic fermentation- is a process that occurs in some plant cells and some unicellular organisms, such as yeast. Pyruvic acid is converted to ethyl alcohol.Anaerobic respiration- the combines process of glycolysis and fermentation.ATP synthetase- an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP.Autotoph- plants and other organisms that meet their energy needs by building organic molecules from inorganic substances.Biochemical pathway- a series of reactions from photosynthesis and respiration.C4- a form of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide binds to a three-carbon compound found in leaf cells.Calvin Cycle- dark reactions of photosynthesis in which glucose is produced.CAM- crassulacean acid metabolism, a form of photosynthesis.Carotene- an accessory pigment of plants.Carotenoid- the yellow, orange, and brown plant accessory pigments.Chemiosmosis- the synthesis of ATP during the passage of H+ through a membrane.CO2 Fixation- the binding of carbon dioxide to ribulose biophosphate during photosynthesis.Dark reactions- in photosynthesis, the process by which ATP and NADPH + H+ react with CO2 from the atmosphere and form glucose Electron transport chain- a sequence of reactions in which an electron is passed from one molecule to another molecule in the chain Fermentation- the breakdown of pyruvic acid without the use of oxygen Glycolysis- the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid Granum- a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast Heterotroph- an organism that cannot make its own food Krebs cycle- the central process of aerobic respiration Lactic acid fermentation- the process by which pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid Light reactions- the phase of photosynthesis in which radiant energy is used to produce molecules of ATP and NADPH+ H+ Lumen- an internal reservoir in a thylakoid Phosphorylation- the transfer of a phosphate group from one molecule to another molecule.Photosynthesis- the process of converting the radiant energy of sunlight into the chemical energy of glucose Photosystem- in plants a unit of hundreds of chlorophyll...

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