Biology Essay

7536 words - 30 pages

Exercise 1: The MicroscopePage 4Letter "e" ObservationThe letter "e" should appear upside down and backwards. Under high magnification, you will see only part of the"e" and may see dots of ink rather than a continuous flow of ink.Crossed Threads Observation-Describe your observationsUnder low (4x) power: Two of the threads are almost in focus, but it is impossible to get both completely focused at the same time. By focusing first on 1 thread then on the second, it is possible to judge which thread is on top. This is an example of being able to visualize in 3-D.Under 10x power, you still have some depth perception and can see the threads crossing over each other although you are seeing a smaller area of threads and may need to move the stage to see more of the threads.Under 40x power, you lose all depth perception and are unable to determine which thread is on top and which is on the bottom. You are seeing smaller areas of the thread because of the higher magnification.Under which power was it easiest to get the overlapping threads mostly in focus? Low powerPage 6Study Questions1. Summarize the function of the following parts of the microscope:Nosepiece: Holds objective leasesIris diaphragm: Constricts or dilates to allow varying amounts of light to pass through the slideCoarse adjustment: Focusing knob, usually the large one, that allows you to focus your slide more quickly. Use with low power only otherwise you may damage the slide or the lens.2. What does the term "parfocal" mean?The microscope is designed so that when you switch to the higher objective lens, the microscope will automatically be partially focused. You will only need minor adjustments of the fine adjustment knob.3. Why is it important to start with the lowest power objective lens?This is the magnification under which it is easiest to find your focus quickly using the coarse adjustment knob. At low magnification, your depth of field is best so the precision required for focusing is less.4. What is the total magnification of your specimen if you are using a 10x ocular and a 45x high-dry objective lens?10 x 45x = 450x5. Your lab partner accidently bumps your microscope and you have lost your focus. What should you do in order to find your specimen again?You should begin again with the low power (4x) objective lens.6. Why should you center the part of your slide you need to view when switching to a higher power objective lens?Higher magnification focuses on a smaller area. If the specimen is not centered, you won't see it in the smaller area of focus available with the higher magnification.7. Refer back to the crossed threads slide. What have you learned about depth perception and the microscope?Low magnification gives a greater sense of dimension. You needed to move the slide around under higher magnification in order to see all the threads. It was very difficult to judge which thread was on top in the higher magnifications.Exercise 2: Cell AnatomyPage 12Study Questions1. Supply...

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