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Biology Essay

886 words - 4 pages

1. A normal gene for autosomal traits may look something like this: T A C A C C T T G G C G A C G A C TFor this problem, that gene has been mutated and now looks like this : T A C A C C T T A G C G A C G A C TPlease transcribe and translate this gene (mRNA and tRNA, including amino acids) and explain the processes of both transcription and translation. Compare the processes of transcription and translation in the normal DNA strand, and the mutated strand. (10 - I, 15 A)Normal:DNA: ATG TGG AAC CGC TGC TGAmRNA: AUG UGG AAC CGC UGC UGAAmino acid: MET TRP ASN ARG CYS STOMutated:DNA: ATG TGG AAT CGC TGC TGAmRNA: AUG UGG AAU CGC UGC UGAAmino Acid: MET TRP ASN ARG CYS STOTranscription is the creating of a matching RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. RNA and DNA are both nucleic acids and use base pairs of nucleotides that can be converted back and forth from DNA to RNA by enzymes. A DNA sequence is read by and RNA polymerase, which makes a matching antiparallel RNA strand. Instead of DNA replication, transcription uses RNA that includes uracil (U) instead of thymine (T), which would happen in DNA replication.RNA polymerase moves to the transcription bubble, a stretch of unpaired nucleotides, by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotides.RNA polymerase adds matching RNA nucleotides that are paired with complementary DNA bases.RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase.Hydrogen bonds of the untwisted RNA + DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand.Transcription is the first step leading to gene expression. The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule and encodes at least one gene. If the gene transcribed encodes a protein, the result of transcription is a messenger RNA (mRNA), which will then be used to create that protein via the process of translation. Or, the transcribed gene may encode for a transfer RNA (tRNA).Translation is when messenger RNA (mRNA) is produced by transcription is decoded by ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into an active protein. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of tRNAs with matching anticodons sequences to that of the mRNA. The tRNAs carry specific amino acids that are chained together into a polypeptide as the mRNA passes through and is "read" by the ribosome. Translation has four phases; initiation, elongation, translocation and termination. Amino acids are brought to ribosomes and assembled into proteins. In activation, the right amino acid is...

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