Biology A Level Planning Experiment Of Effect Of Lead Ions On Amylase

1496 words - 6 pages

The effect of Lead ions on amylase activityAimWhat is the effect of Lead ions on the enzyme Amylase. And does it have an inhibitory effect, which causes the substrate, in this case starch to be blocked from the reaction process in the enzyme catalyst. Also is the effect reversible or irreversible, which is put on the amylase.MethodApparatus and substances requiredTest tube holder 2% starch solution6 boiling tubes labelled 1 to 6 1% lead nitrate solution6 test tubes labelled A to E, ( F) Dimple tiles5 test tubes labelled A1, B2, C3, D4, E5, (F6) 5 ml syringe1% Amylase solution 4 dropping pipettesStop clockFirstly, in each of the boiling tubes place 8 ml of 2% starch solution using the syringe. Then in each of the test tubes labelled A to F add 1ml of 1% Amylase solution. In the remaining 6 test tubes add the different concentrations of the lead nitrate solution as shown below in their corresponding test tubes.All concentrations are achieved by serial dilution originally coming from a 1% lead nitrate solution.OverallConcentration of Lead nitrate in solutionA1 - 1ml lead nitrate solution (1%) 1%B2 - 0.8 ml of 1% lead nitrate solution, 0.2 ml of distilled water 0.8%C3 - 0.6 ml of 1% lead nitrate solution, 0.4 ml of distilled water 0.6%D4 - 0.4ml of 1% lead nitrate solution, 0.6 ml of distilled water 0.4%E5 - 0.2 ml of 1% lead nitrate solution, 0.8 ml of distilled water 0.2%F6 - N/A N/AAfter these are all measured out accurately fill dimple tiles with iodine solution. To start the reaction mix the two test tubes, A and A1 in to boiling tube, 1mix well and start the clock, and every 30 seconds take a sample using a pipette and drop on to dimple tile still mixing (shaking) all the time. By doing this take we can take note of the time it takes for the blue black colour to fade I.e. For all the starch to be reacted by the Amylase.Repeat this process for all the other concentrations with the test tubes and boiling tubes. Remembering to use a different pipette each time used for putting solution on dimple tiles.B - B2 - 2C - C3 - 3D - D4 - 4E - E5 - 5A A11(With mixing / shaking)Boiling tubeSafety hazards / precautionsEnzymes - All enzymes are potential allergens so contact an inhalation should be reduced to a minimum. Can cause asthma, cause irritation to nose and eyes do not swallow also if spilt on skin wash off immediately . So gloves and goggles are nessecery. And when disposed of it must be diluted in 10 litres of water.Iodine solution - Vapour is harmful to eyes and when inhaled. Use in a fume cupboard and wear eye goggles. Should again be diluted before disposed of. Avoid contact with skin as stains can occur.Lead salts - toxic, do not swallow, avoid inhalation of dusts, use eye protection, dispose of by heavy dilutionJustifications for methodThe equipment used is accurate enough for the experiment by way of measuring and drop adding.I choose the amounts and concentrations specifically so the numbers become easier to work with for example when...

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