Biology Exam Q&A Essay

1160 words - 5 pages

Exam Two

Question One

Question Two
The Red-Backed Jumping Spider (Phidippius Johnsoni) is found in Western North America and has been introduced to New Zealand with contaminated imported table grapes. They undergo gradual metamorphosis. They spin tubular nests out of silky thread under fallen logs, rocks and other debris on the ground. They hunt using sight so they are diurnal and mostly stay inside their nests at night. Their nests also provide havens in which molting, egg laying and hatching can take place, and offer protection against the elements. Sometime courtship and mating occurs inside these nests. The male spiders exhibit distinctly different methods of courtship, one for when courting takes place when the male encounters a mature female inside her nest, another for when a male encounters a female that has not fully matured, and another if the male encounters a mature female outside of the nest. Male Johnsoni do not attempt courtship with immature females when encountered outside the nest. Outside the nest, males engage in a visual courtship as these spiders have adapted to have more sophisticated vision. When males come in contact with a mature female inside the nest he courts her using vibrations as they cannot see as well in the dark. If the male encounters a female who has not yet fully matured he will court her using the vibratory method and if she accept him, he will cohabitate with the female until she matures and is ready to mate. Once the eggs are fertilized, females lay eggs in consecutive batches starting about one month after fertilization, with one month elapsing between each following batch of eggs laid. Eggs hatch about three weeks after being released, and the young spiders leave the nest after roughly three more weeks. Males will reach maturity in a minimum of five to seven molts, whereas the female will require at least six to eight. As a result, males reach maturity faster, are smaller in size and have a shorter life expectancy than females.

Question Three
Insects have a durable, protective exoskeleton, highly successful reproduction, undergo metamorphosis and they are they only arthropods that have the ability to fly. These attributes are major contributions in allowing insects to thrive. The exoskeleton is the most beneficial adaptation in insects, acting as both skin and skeleton it provides structural support to the insect while protecting internal organs and systems. It is composed of the organism epidermis which the Schmidt's layer attaches to the cuticle. The living epidermis produces the non-living cuticle through a process of secretion. The cuticle is layers of protein infused with chitin which is undigestible to all but a few microorganisms. The exoskeleton also prevents entry and infection of bacteria or other harmful organisms, prevents dehydration, is a surface for muscle attachment, and allows organisms communicate with their environment by facilitating a sensory interface. In some...

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