Biology Hsc Notes Maintaining A Balance

5461 words - 22 pages

Biology(HSC Course)Topic 1: Maintaining a BalanceEnzymesThe Role of EnzymesEnzymes role is to maintain the rate of chemical activity in an organism. They are biological catalysts, increasing the rate of reaction in metabolic processes. They also enable reactions to occur at lower temperatures, which means that body temperatures do not have to be so high.Chemical CompositionEnzymes are specialised large proteins, which are composed of chains of amino acids, which are folded, to produce a 3-D protein structure. (3D: can be denatured).Lock-and-key Mechanism (model)Enzymes control specific reactions, therefore only one compound can react with a particular enzyme. The model used describes how the enzyme closely fits into the shape of the substrate (compound). The active site is where the enzyme catalyses the reaction.Diagram:Acidity of a substancePH levels describe the acidity of a substance. pH ranges from 1-14, where lower levels are acidic, higher levels are basic and 7 is neutral.Maintenance of a constant internal environmentThe maintenance of a constant internal environment is important for optimal metabolic efficiency. This is because enzymes require specific temperatures, substrate concentration and pH levels to be able to function thereby maintaining optimal metabolic efficiency. There is only a very small temp range and pH range in which enzymes can work.Temp: 36-40pH: 7.35-7.45Specific concentrations of hormones, salts, glucose, waterHomeostasisHomeostasis is the process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment.The 2 Stages of HomeostasisThe organism detects changes from the stable state e.g. change in body temp.The organism responds and counteracts the changes to bring the body back to its stable state.The role of the Nervous SystemThe body detects changes via the nervous system, which along with the endocrine system, co-ordinates and controls the body, responding to any changes.Feedback MechanismsControl homeostasis by detecting a stimulus and responding to it.Negative feedback - a specific change results in a response opposite to the initial situation. E.g. When human gets cold - shivers, generates heat and body becomes warmer.Positive feedback - the monitoring will enforce and amplify the situation, causing more of the same situation to take place. E.g. Childbirth: release of oxytocin to cause contractions, increases until baby is born.Diagram to represent Negative Feedback:Life is found over a very broad range of temperatures, ranging from thermophiles withstanding temps of up to 200 to bacteria living in ice and penguins living in Arctic winter, which get as cold asEndothermic Animal Responses to changes in ambient tempEndotherms maintain an independent, constant body temp from its environment. They generate their own heat. e.g. mammals and birds.Examples:Galah - MigrationPelicans - Panting: Cool down by evaporative coolingGibber Bird - Holds wings out for air circulation to cool.Marsupial mole - White/pale...

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