Running in Hot and Cold Environments
Physiological Effects of Human Endeavours in Extreme Environments
In this report, the bodies changing physiological response and homeostatic mechanisms will be discussed, specifically the repository system and thermoregulation, running in hot and cold environments. The report will additionally address technologies that have mitigated the physiological risks that are associated with running in hot and cold environments.
Homeostatic Response – Respiratory System
During running, the respiratory system is an important homeostatic respiratory as it is responsible for transporting carbon dioxide and oxygen to and from muscles and tissues in the body. During exercise, the repository system provides oxygen to the tissues of body through the lungs. It also eliminates carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body via the lungs.
During exercise, your body needs more oxygen; and in ‘tidal volume’ which is reference to the quantity of air that is inhaled and exhaled with every breath. This is similar to ‘stoke volume’ in the cardiovascular system.
An increase in the ‘respiration or breathing rate’, which refers to how many times a person completes an inhalation and exhalation every minute. This is similar to ‘heart rate’ in the cardiovascular system. And if the exercise is intense, breathing rates may increase from a typical resting rate of 15 breaths per minute up to 40 – 50 breaths per minute.
There is a maximum volume of O2 that your body can consume.
The longer you exercise the greater the O2 deficit. Post exercise your respiration rate remains increased in order to dispel the CO2 created during exercise as well as to "reimburse"the muscles O2. Breathing rates will return to normal 10-20 minutes after exercise has ceased.
When you exercise your body needs more energy, that means your cells needs more O2, so your heart pumps faster in order to get more oxygen to the cells.
Avergae human heart rate is 70 bpm, when exercising that can increase to 220 bpm. This increase in heart rate will increase blood flow and O2 to the cells as shown in the previous equation.
In response to the increased demand for O2 the body will expand the blood vessels
The body can expand the blood vessels to the parts of the body that need more O2 and contract the blood vessels to the parts of the body not necessary during exercise.
What happens to the circulatory system in reaction to exercise
How the two work together
The respiratory system works with the circulatory system by providing O2 to the blood for the cells, and by removing metabolic waste products while exhaling.
The cerebellum, a part of the brain near the base of your skull, controls heart rate and other vital functions. When you get scared or start to exercise, the nodes on your heart will increase the pace of the heart rate to give more O2 to the cells.
In response to the increased demand for O2 the breathing rate will increase.