Biology Revision Essay

9491 words - 38 pages

The search for better healthDiscuss the difficulties of defining the terms 'health' and 'diseases':Health is hard to define because it incorporates many things and some can be very subjective. Such as, biological, psychological and social well-being. Disease is similarly difficult to define because it is a state of impairment functioning or poor health. It depends on an individual's normal level of functioning and on what they expect their quality of life to be.Outline how the function of genes, mitosis, cell differentiation and specialisation assist in the maintenance of health:The function of genes is to ensure that the correct proteins are produced in a cell to enable all cellular processes continue. Mitosis enables the genetic material to be copied correctly when new cells are formed. Different types of cells become specialised for different functions within a multicellular organism.Distinguish between infectious and non-infectious disease: An Infectious diseases can pass to another organism to another, where-as a non-infectious disease cannot.Explain why cleanliness in food, water and personal hygiene practices assist in control of disease:Control measures such as cleanliness can stop the spread of infectious diseases, particularly if we know how a disease is transmitted. General hygiene and cleanliness are important in reducing the transmission of infectious diseases. Prevents the growth of disease thus reducing the likelihood of somebody contracting the disease.Identify the conditions under which an organism is described as a pathogen: Organisms are called pathogens when they cause disease.Describe the role of Pasteur in identifying the causes of disease: Pasteur discovered that most infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, or germs. This became known as the germ theory of disease. This also destroyed the theory of spontaneous generation.Outline Koch's postulates and explain how they can be used to identify the causative organism of an infectious disease:1.The micro-organism must be present in every host with the disease2.The micro-organism must be isolated from the host and cultured3.A potential host, when inoculated with the micro-organism, must develop the same symptoms as the original host4.The micro-organism must be able to be isolated from the second host and identified as the same species as originally cultured. If the postulates show that the disease applies to the four rules above, it will be evident that the specific bacterium is the infectious pathogen causing the disease.Identify that infectious diseases of animals and plants are caused by pathogens that include:Prions: Prions are infectious agents that cause brain disease in mammals. They are proteins that have been altered from their normal shape in the body to an abnormal shape, although the chemical make-up of the protein remains the same. Diseases include: scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy or mad cow disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in...

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