Biology: The Chiral Molecules Essay

1212 words - 5 pages

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Introduction
Many biomolecules besides amino acid are chiral, which contain one or more asymmetric carbon. Recently, the studies of the chiral molecules in the biological assembly system have been a subject to an extensive research. In order to improve the biosensor detection level, several research has been carried out, especially in the electrochemistry based research. In this study, collagen is used with the combination of carbon nanotubes to create a new bio-composite compound. However, this new type of bio-composite compound for certain need to go through some analyzation in order to improve the condition of the new bio-composite produced.
Collagen can act as ...view middle of the document...

There are several structures of CNT, which is differing in length, thickness, types of helicity and number of layers. There are two types of CNT, which is Single Wall Nanotubes (SWNTs) and Multi Wall Nanotubes (MWNTs). In this project the MWNTs is used.
Multi wall nanotubes are made up of multiple roll layered of graphene. It can come out either in the course of a coaxial assembly of SWNT similar to a coaxial line, or as a single sheet of graphite rolled into the form of a coil. The diameter of MWNTs is usually in the range of 5 nm to 50 nm while the interlayer distance is as close as the distance between graphene layers in graphite. MWNT is easily produced in high volume quantities compared to SWNT but the structure of MWNT isles understood as it possessed greater complexity and variety. So, the regions of structural imperfection may diminish its desirable properties.


Figure 1.1 (a) Structures of MWNTs


Figure 1.1 (b) SWNTs and MWNTs

1.2. Fundamentals of Voltammetry Technique
1.2.1 Three electrode system
The three electrode system consists of the working electrode, a reference electrode, and the auxiliary electrode which made it important in Voltammetry. This three electrode plays an important role in the three electrode system. Reference electrode refers to the electrode that has a recognized electrode potential. Besides that, reference electrode can be used as a half cell. When the electrode acts as a half cell, the other half cell electrode potential can be discovered. There are two widely used reference electrode which is saturated calomel electrode and silver-silver chloride electrode. In this project, silver-silver chloride electrode is used as a reference electrode. This electrode precipitates a salt in the solution which participates in the reaction. It is widely used due to its inexpensive and less toxic properties. It is made by coding the wire solid silver in AgCl which is then placed in a tube of KCl and AgCl solution so that the ions is formed as electron flow in and out of the system. The redox process for this electrode is as follows:
AgCl (s) + e- Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
The auxiliary electrode which is also called as the counter electrode provides circuit which current is applied or measured. The potential is adjusted to balance the current measured at the working electrode. It takes into account the potential of the working electrode to be assessed against a known reference electrode without compromising the stability of that reference electrode by passing current over it. The counter electrode is insulated by using...

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