Biology: The Parasite Essay

1265 words - 5 pages

Parasite. The word conjures up thoughts of infections and infestations. These nasty critters not only infect humans, but they also infect countless other species. Parasitic protists are the type of organisms that this paper will delve into; more specifically, the phylum Microspora and the hosts that its species infects (Baker, 1982). Many parasitic protists can infect numerous different species of other organisms, but there are some who can only survive and reproduce while they are in one specific species. This concept of a parasitic protist only being able to thrive in a single species or a few select species is referred to as host specificity.Studying host specificity can lead to gaining invaluable information regarding not only the parasitic species, but also the host species that the parasite infects. By learning as much as we can about parasite-host relationships, we may be able to some day manipulate or control the destructive parasite species such as that of microsporids affecting economic aspects including the Nosema bombycis causing pebrine in the Bombyx mori (silkworm caterpillars) and the Nosema apis causing nosema disease in the Apis mellifera (honey bees). These two species (B. mori & A. mellifera) alone produce millions of dollars in revenue, but it is not just revenue that one should be concerned with when considering these parasitic microsporidia; we need to be concerned by the delicate balance that the microsporidia and their hosts within our ecosystem are a vital part of. According to Stirnadel and Ebert (1997; as sighted by Canter & Lund, 1951, Green, 1974, Mirscle, 1977, Brambilla, 1983, Brunning, Lingemam & Ringelberg, 1992, Vidtmann, 1993, and Ebert 1995), "micro- and macroparasites, as well as epibionts, have a strong potential to regulate their host populations, to alter the outcome of competition, and possibly to maintain co-existence of natural plankton populations." This concept not only applies to plankton populations, but potentially to every population on this earth.This paper will analyze three field studies that dealt with the host specificity of microsporidia. One of these studies examined the effects of parasites on three Daphnia species in three ponds in southern England over a period of one year. Another study examines the host specificity of several microsporidium species on the Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) of North America. A third study examines the host specificity of microsporidium on the same species (Lymantria dispar), but the study is conducted in Bulgaria, where the species is native. The first study was the only one of the three conducted in the natural habitat of the species involved, and the other two studies were conducted within a laboratory.H.A. Stirnadel and D. Ebert conduct the first study. This study is conducted in three ponds in southern England over a one-year period of time. The ponds were manmade and all located within 2 km of each other. The Daphnia species were...

Find Another Essay On Biology: The Parasite

Transmission of Schistosomiasis Essay

2399 words - 10 pages with chemosensory behaviors (Vinauger, 2014). Schistosomiasis, mediated by the chemosensory behavior of Schistosoma (trematode), is another acute and chronic disease. The parasite exploits the neuroendocrine hormones and nutrients produced by the host for its growth, development and maturation. (Zhou et al, 2009). Nearly 42 million people were reported to have been treated by the disease in 2012.(WHO) Schistosomiasis can be caused by different

Pathogenic Organisms Research Report: Malaria.

1293 words - 5 pages INTRODUCTION:The Australian biology dictionary defines a disease as " any change that impairs the function of an individual in some way; that is, it harms the individual due to infection, injury or incorrect body metabolism." These diseases effect and impair the quality of life. This SAC will include detailed research into the causes, similarities, methods of transportation between hosts, and relations between host and pathogen of the chosen

Human Fears of Biological Science

2096 words - 8 pages Biology, genetic engineering, research, humans and animals all have one thing in common; they all will potentially start the spread of the worst viral disease known to humanity. AIDS, a viral disease of the human, is spreading rapidly across the world. Also, parasites, rabies, and toxoplasma gondii are all potential factors in the human body takeover. Zombie films today help show how the world will be when this happens. Blood, saliva, and biting

Infectious diseases

1889 words - 8 pages and tapewormDefinition of Macroscopic parasites:What is a macroscopic parasite? Macroscopic parasites or macro-parasites are parasites that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. They generally include, tick, mites, flatworms, lice, etc. Now you know what a macro-parasite is, but do you know what the term 'parasite' means? A parasite lives in a close relationship with another organism, its host, and causes it harm. The parasite is

Predator/Prey relationships. In depth view of predator prey relationships. Covers mutualism, defense mechanisms, and coevolution.

4222 words - 17 pages symbiosis is parasitism. Parasitism is when the relationship between two animal populations becomes intimate and the individuals of one population use the other population as a source of food and can be located in or on the host animal or animal of the other population(Boughey 1973). No known organism escapes being a victim of parasitism(Brum 1989).Parasitism is similar to preditation in the sense that the parasite derives nourishment from the

Human Alterations, Deforestation, and its Adverse Affects

1715 words - 7 pages Brazilian Amazon, published in January of 2014 by Hahn et al. Malaria is a public health threat in Brazil and numerous human agricultural practices have created breeding sites for the malarial parasite (Anopheles Darling). Deforestation rates in Brazil range from 6,000 to 28,000 km2/year over the last decade. Hahn et al. know that deforestation is correlated with increased malaria but wanted to research how other factors affect the rate of malaria


2271 words - 9 pages PAGE [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] Physics Honors Period 6B5 June 2013Career Term Paper: BiologistHave you ever seen on the Internet or news when a plant or animal goes extinct due to a parasite? Or perhaps when an animal is discovered and studied, who is responsible? This is the complete job of a biologist. A biologist is an occupation that is very diverse, with tens of different fields to go into. This occupation is very important to

Symbiosis In Nature

1641 words - 7 pages several distinct types and styles of symbiosis found in nature. Burwell Wingfeild, a biology teacher at Virginia Military Institute, describes these phenomena in Despicable Species: Cowbirds, Kudzu, Hornworms, and Other Scourges as best being categorized using the “plus-minus system”: the plus sign (+), the minus sign (- -) and the neutral sign (0). The plus sign stands for benefit, the minus sign stands for loss or harm, and the neutral sign means

Charles Darwin and Natural Selection

1109 words - 4 pages (Scientific Biography 566). It is now believed that Darwin suffered from Chaga’s disease, caused by a parasite from a beetle that bit him in South America (Scientific Biography 566). On April 19, 1882, Charles Darwin did at his family home (“Charles Darwin”). He was buried at Westminster Abbey The fields of biology and geology are impacted greatly by Charles Darwin. His theory of natural selection is still widely accepted to this day, and is being

The Blind Watchmaker by Richard Dawkins

1480 words - 6 pages response to the different selection pressures organisms and the environment place on each other. Arms races can occur in a range of scenarios from within the same species between individuals in sexual conflict, to organisms of different species in a parasite/host relationship. Additionally, the role of coevolution plays a major role in the Red Queen Hypothesis. Extensive research in the field of biology provides supportive evidence for these

Bacteria, Viruses and Prions

1604 words - 7 pages feet. Hansen’s disease is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium Leprae, also known as M Leprae. M Leprae is a slow-growing bacillus and parasite. People can contract Hansen’s disease if they come in contact with droplets from the nose or mouth of someone with Hansen’s disease. Hansen’s disease is now very rare, and is treatable. In the United States alone, there are only around 300 cases reported every year. If a person has a Paucibacillary form of

Similar Essays

Parasites And Their Virulence Essay

2899 words - 12 pages modulation. The development of an inclusive, accurate model has significance beyond theoretical biology, given the threat to human populations posed by pathogens such as HIV (Gibbons 1994). Mass extinctions such as the Cretaceous event may have resulted from parasite-host interaction (Bakker 1986), and sexual reproduction (i.e. recombination of genes during meiosis) may have evolved to increase resistance to parasites

Factors Of Parasitic Virulence. Essay

1709 words - 7 pages : Reconciliation Between Two CompetingHypotheses. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 169:253-265.Milinski, M. 1990. Parasites and Host Decision-Making pp. 95-116 InParasitism and Host Behaviour. Barnard, C. J. and Behnke, J. M. Eds.Taylor & Francis. London.Read, A. F. and Harvey, P. H. 1993. The evolution of virulence theoretical framework in which the factors dft, C. A. and Aeschlimann, A. 1991. Introduction: Coexistence orConflict? pp. 1-12 In Parasite

Analysis Of Malaria

1207 words - 5 pages Malaria is one of the most prevalent and serious illnesses that affects a majority of the world’s population. The disease spreads through a specific type of mosquito, belonging to the genus anopheles, which has the ability to transmit the malaria parasite into human body while feeding on the human blood. Malaria is caused by the single celled, protozoan parasite called plasmodium. Plasmodium has a complex life cycle and is able to get into the

Malaria Essay

1178 words - 5 pages contain substances toxic to Plasmodium in their cells, not all species of mosquitoes are vectors of Plasmodium. Although very specific, malaria still causes disruption of over three hundred million people worldwide each year (Cann, 1996).The life cycle of the parasite causing malaria exists between two organisms, humans and the Anopheles mosquito. When a female mosquito bites a human, she injects an anticoagulant saliva which keeps the human bleeding