Biomarker Discovery For Prostate Cancer Essay

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Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of world-wide cancer-related death in men after lung cancer (WCRF International), and in Australia, it accounts for 30% of all new cancers in men and 13.4% of all cancer deaths in men (Cancer Australia). Currently, Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is the most commonly used serum biomarker for prostate cancer most routinely used by urologists. However, PSA-based screening has been shown to have high false positives and false negatives with low specificity, and it is not able to distinguish well between cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia or between indolent and aggressive cancers, thus leading to overtreatment, especially unnecessary biopsies ...view middle of the document...

). In the last 10 years or so, MS has increasingly become the method of choice for clinical proteomics research, especially in biomarker discovery and analysis of prostate cancer (Flatley). Prostate cancer cell lines have been used widely in the search for biomarkers in order to achieve early diagnosis. Using 2-dimentional chromatography and liquid chromatography MS, human prostate cancer cell lines PC3, LNCaP and 22Rv1 have been used to identify proteins that could have biomarkers potential. Four biomarkers; follistatin, chemokine ligand 16, pentraxin and spondin-2 were validated by ELISA in the serum of patients with and without prostate cancer, and showed biomarker potential (Sardana). Later studies have validated some of the findings such as the role of spondin-2 as an independent new serum diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer (Qian). Endosomal and lysosomal enzymes are thought to be a contributing factor in prostate cancer biology due to their involvement in energy metabolism and cell division; hence, categorizing them as a potential source of biomarkers. Lysosomal biogenesis is also suggested to be involved in the progress and onset of prostate cancer, and the isolation of exosomes, which contain proteins that are specific to the tissue from which they are derived, would enable detection of disease-specific...

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