Non-cognitive variables in older persons were able to be predicted based on the recent cognitive aging. The interest in this is the variables that can predict age differences in cognitive performance. Cognitive performance in older age is classified as contextual variables, also known as biomarkers. Environmental context in biological development influences are context variables including mental activity, health, physical activity, education, and personality (Anstey 605). Influences have direct implications for life style variables that can be manipulated in order to improve cognitive outcomes in older age. Biomarkers are sensitive to things such as age changes and differences in age.
Biomarkers include the measures of sensory function, muscle strength, and pulmonary function. Cognitive domains, contextual factors, and biomarkers are aimed to represent the importance of cognitive domains. In the study it had three main aims of interest. The first aim is the priority test that measures biological aging to explain age difference in cognitive performances in old age. The second aim was the development of structural equation that included biomarkers and contextual variables as predictors. The third aim was evaluating the degree of variables that were used as biomarkers in order to explain the individual differences in cognitive performances.
Measures of vibration sense, hearing, forced expiratory volume, and vision are biomarkers that were chosen for the study. Negative correlations were found between the measures of visual activity and sensitivity of visual contrast in cognitive function during a cross-sectional study of normal aging. Also in cross-sectional studies, pure tone audiometric is associated with cognitive performance. In MacArthur studies successful aging found that pulmonary expiratory flow rate, education, self-efficacy, and strenuous activity are the best kind of predictors in a twenty-four to thirty-month period. A function that is known to predict mortality would be pulmonary function. To explain the differences in age of cognitive development in older women is the lower limb strength rather than the grip strength.
In order to explain cognitive performance contextual variables are important. Memory...