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Biomechanics: Static Jumping Essay

940 words - 4 pages

DiscussionFifty four subjects were measured performing two different vertical jumping styles; the static jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ). The counter movement jump involved pre-stretching whereas the static jump required a 3 second 90º flex at the knee joint. During both these jumps both arms were held stationary behind the subjects back. This is essential because arm swing enhances kinetic energy and consequently increases jump height (Lees, Clercq and Vanrenterghem, 2004).When muscles contract concentrically force is placed on the bone via tendons and movement occurs at the joint. This contractile force can be increased if the muscle performs a lengthening contraction before the commencement of the muscle shortening contraction. The SCC is identified as an eccentric contraction followed immediately by concentric contraction. The series elastic component (SEC) is thought to be the mechanism by which the SSC operates (Hall, 2003). The stretch shorten cycle is likely to account for the 11% difference between the SJ and CMJ means.When performing the CMJ the concentric forces acting on the hip, knee and ankle joints had to apply more initial force when compared to the initial force required for the SJ, (Bobbert, Gerritsen, Litjens, Soest, 1996, cited in Walshe, Wilson, Ettema, 1998). During the SJ the concentric forces only work against body weight. However during the CMJ the concentric forces must work against body weight and the eccentric forces being applied. Therefore the need for greater initial concentric contraction is required to combat these forces during the CMJ. Relationships between the maximum vertical velocities and jump heights for both jumping techniques can be seen in figure 2. In accordance with the above theory they are highly correlated; 0.959 and 0.985 respectively.Fast-twitch (FT) muscle fibres are important for athletes who must create powerful jumps (Hall, 2003). Individuals with a higher percentage of FT muscle fibres are ale to generate higher magnitudes of torque and power during movement than those with more slow-twitch (ST) fibres (Fitts as cited in Hall, 2003). Trainers place importance on muscle fibre composition because athletes who require a lot of power e.g. high jump or pitching in baseball require a higher percentage of FT muscle fibres and ST muscle fibres are more useful in endurance sports. Unfortunately athletes are unable to alter the ratio of FT fibres or ST fibres through training; they can however increase the contraction velocity by 20% (Hall, 2003).The vertical jump is used to develop explosive strength, particularly in plyometric training programs (Lees et al. 2004).The static jump is performed in sports such as sumo-wrestling and sprinting where the athlete starts in a crouched position. Alternatively the CMJ studies are more useful in jumping sports. A good example is a netball or basketball throw. This experiment itself is not particularly helpful for elite training purposes; it is a...

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