Biosocial Theory On Juvenile Male Sex Offenses

1915 words - 8 pages

Introduction
When one hears the label “sex offender” it is associated with a negative stigma. Society has reinforced the label while encouraging individuals to associate a profile to the offender. Typical words that are connected to a sex offender may include monster, horrific, heinous, and sickening. When conceptualizing the victim, some associations made could include words such as rape, molestation, women, or even juvenile. Typically, when society hears the word juvenile being associated to a sex offense, it is assumed that the juvenile is the victim. Though this is true in some cases, there is an increasing number of sex offenses being committed by juvenile offenders. According to the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), “juvenile sex offenders comprise more than one-quarter (25.8%) of all sex offenders and more than one-third (35.6%) of sex offenders against juvenile victims” (Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., & Chaffin, M., 2009, p. 1). The following report will examine sex offenses committed by male juveniles. The report will include characteristics of the type of crime, crime factors, an application of the biosocial theory, and the strengths and limits presented by the theory.
Characteristics of the type of crime
According to Finkelhor et al (2009), the NIBRS has attempted to define a sex offense; however, states that it is difficult to concretely define a sex offense, as jurisdiction and registrations laws will vary from states as well as interpretation by officers (p. 1). For the purpose of this report, “a sex offender refers to a person who has committed either a forcible or nonforcible sex offense” (Finkelhor et al, 2009, p. 4). Finkelhor et al (as cited by the U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2004:191) further defines a forcible sexual offense as “any sexual act directed against another person, forcibly and/or against that person’s will, or not forcibly or against the person’s will where the victim is incapable of giving consent” (p. 4). Whereas, Finkelhor et al (as cited by the U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2004: 192) defines a nonforcible sex offense as “unlawful, nonforcible sexual intercourse” (p. 4). It is important to note that for the purpose of juvenile sex offenses committed, the NIBRS indicates that approximately 90.5% are forcible sex offenses (Finkelhor et al, 2009, p. 9).
The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) indicated there was a total of 84,767 forcible rapes reported in the United States in 2010 (Sourcebook of Criminal Justice, 2010). According to the National Juvenile Justice Network, juvenile offenders account for twelve percent of the overall rape incidents committed (2014, para. 7). The NIBRS depicted that in the year 2004 in the United Stated there were a total of 4,037,000 crime incidents committed by juvenile offenders, and 14,000 of those offenses were for sex-related crimes (Finkelhor et al, 2009,...

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