Biotechnology Essay

855 words - 3 pages

Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationship between amino acids and dipeptides. Explain the use of two named enzymes in biotechnology.Water is the molecule made up of hydrogen and oxygen and it plays a key role in an existence of living organisms. It is due to its properties like: transparency, cohesion, solvent properties and thermal properties: heat capacity, boiling and freezing points and the cooling effect of evaporation.Transparency means that light can pass through the water and reach chloroplasts where it is used in the process of photosynthesis. Cohesion occurs when the water molecules stick to one another because of hydrogen bonding. This water property, called also as a surface tension, acts an important role in as the significance to living organisms as the strong surface film allows small organisms to be attached below or supported above. or example a pond-skater can float or walk on the surface of the water. Since the water is a great solvent, many substances easily dissolves in it. It happens because water is slightly polar (what means that organic substances such as sodium and organic substances (solutes) such as glucose can dissolve in it. The solvent properties of water allow substances to be carried in blood and cell sap in plants.Water has its thermal properties as well. Water has a large heat capacity – to raise its temperature, we need large amounts of energy because the role of heat is to break the hydrogen bonds. Level of the heat energy is given out as the water is cooled down.Next of the water thermal properties are the boiling and freezing points. Water boils in natural habits on the Earth in the temperature of 100°C, what is too high for the living organisms to survive. Water’s freezing point is relatively high – 0°C. However, because water becomes less dense as it freezes, ice is formed. Ice that forms on the lake’s surface insolates the water underneath so living things can survive, without the water temperature being too low.Water is also a good coolant and has evaporation properties. High heat of vaporization gives efficient cooling of the body as sweat evaporates. In plant leaves in happens in terms of transportation. It happens because water can evaporate at temperatures below boiling point.There are also some physical properties of water that have biological importance for living organisms. For example density - when displaced, water gives good support for aquatic organisms. Capillarity may be involved in transporting water in the steam of a plant. Moreover, the fact that...

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