As human populations rise, and industries increase in number, the by-products of human and industrial existence also increase. The need to conserve the environment today is very urgent. The idea of sustainable development today is that development should meet the requirements of the present without putting at risk the ability of future generations to satisfy their own needs. The growth of the world’s population implies that there will be a constantly increasing need for clean water for both residential and industrial use. We can recycle our water without necessarily harming our environment and polluting our rivers. Larger investments are needed in order to engineer and design better equipment for wastewater treatment facilities, which will give more than adequate benefits not only for humans, but for the environment and other living creatures, as well.
One of the main uses of environmental biotechnology is in the treatment of industrial waste and wastewater. Microorganisms are important in wastewater treatment because of their capacity for increased growth and metabolism.
Bacteria are the main source for degradation. They require a source of energy and carbon for the creation of new cells and other nutrients as well as other trace elements.
All microorganisms fall into 2 main groups:
• Heterotrophic, which need organic matter to produce energy and to obtain carbon from.
• Autotrophic, which oxidize inorganic substances to produce energy, and use C02 as a carbon source.
One significant application of the science of microbiology is in wastewater treatment. To protect the environment, wastewater from various sources in a locale must be treated before it is released once more into the environment. Wastewater has a substantial amount of microbes, and many of these are essential in the breaking down and regulation of organic substances. These microbes therefore are able to act beneficially. On the other hand, these very same microbes may also have pathogenic microorganisms which act as a hazard and which may imperil public health. These pathogens wreak havoc by causing harm on their hosts. For instance, waterborne and water-related illnesses caused by pathogenic microbes are among the most serious menaces that society faces today. In the website of the Northern Arizona University, it is said that around 35% of the productivity in developing nations is lost due to these waterborne ailments. These diseases are commonly spread by the oral or fecal way in which water is the main avenue for the transport of these diseases.
Bacteria are defined as any of the single-celled prokaryotic organisms. Bacteria are present all around us. The table below provides information on several bacterial pathogens and their respective related diseases:
Bacterial Pathogens Related Disease
s. typhimurium Typhoid fever
Vibro cholerae Cholera
Camplyobacter jejuni gastroenteritis
On the other hand, viruses...