1.0 Definition of Biotechnology
Early, the prehistoric man became intellectual enough to breed animals and plants as well as collect miscellaneous herbs to produce medicine, bread, wine, beer and other fermented foods namely yoghurt, cheese and so on.
Biotechnology terms usually related with uses of the living organisms or their products to prevent human health and environment with a superior provision (Peters, 1993). Furthermore, Biotechnology is definite as any technique that uses living organisms to compose or modify products and services for particular purposes (Murugan & Wins, 2010). The application of biological organisms, systems and processes to the provision of goods and services ...view middle of the document...
The first sector is healthcare biotechnology. Healthcare biotechnology is one of the biotechnology application that involves producing medicine or diagnostic product or a vaccine that have been in living organism using the recombinant technology. In year 2009, 22% of the biotechnology firm developed product in health care.
According to the Malaysian Investment Development Authority (MIDA), Malaysia is lead in producing and exporting all medical gloves and catheters. Beside it, Malaysia also produces others medical devices product such as syringes, blood transfusion sets, dialysis solutions, hypodermic/ spinal/ AV fistula needles, diagnostic radiographic equipment, procedural kits, surgical equipment, blood pressure transducers, medical gases, medical tubes and bags and orthopaedic products. Qualities of our medical product that manufactured or producing in Malaysia are been recognised by Department of Health (United Kingdom) and Bundesgesundheitsamt (Germany) and Food and Drug Administration (United States).
However, Malaysia cannot produce the “high-end” equipment or medical device like others country such as Japan. We need to imported medical equipment such as In-vitro diagnostic devices; cardiovascular products; Wound care products; ophthalmic products; Electro medical equipment; Orthopaedic products and Home care products into our country. Right now, Malaysia work hard towards in implementing the new biotechnology tool in term of healthcare so that our country did not depend much on the technology of other country such as Japan, United States and others. With the TPPA agreement, healthcare sector of Malaysia will be more develop and can compete with the Asians countries.
2.2 Agricultural Sectors
Agricultural biotechnology is one of the biotechnology sectors which had been practice in Malaysia alongside the health and industrial biotechnology. Genetic engineering is highly related with the agricultural biotechnology as the alternation and modification of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the significant technique. The agricultural biotechnology is important because it can increase crops productivity, enhance the quality of plants, increase the crops resistances, and indirectly help maintain good environment. This is because the rate of usage of chemical based insecticides is reduced.
In fact, the adoption of agricultural biotechnologies in Malaysia is still low in comparison with an economically developed country like Japan (Farid, Silang & Sarkar, 2011). According to Suguru (2013), the agricultural biotechnology industry of Japan is improving at steady paced. Unlike Malaysia, for plant biotechnology sector, the foods and crops productions of Japan are high and they are currently one of the largest countries that exports foods in the world. In case of Malaysia, in plant sector is quite notable locally but yet in term of production of rice, Malaysia still could not produce enough rice to serve all the current population (Mokhtar & Mahalingam,...