Bipolar Disorder Type 1
Bipolar Disorder Type 1
Bipolar affective disorder is characterized by periods of deep, prolonged, and profound depression that alternate with periods of an excessively elevated or irritable mood known as mania. . This paper systemically analyzes pathophysiology of Bipolar disorder and its correlation with my client including laboratory values and medication chart.
While the exact cause of bipolar I disorder remains unclear, genetics is believed to play a major role. Other contributing factors include abnormalities in a person’s brain circuitry, irregularities in dopamine production, and environmental factors such as childhood trauma or abuse.
Signs and Symptoms
Manic episodes are feature at least 1 week of profound mood disturbance, characterized by elation, irritability, or expansiveness. At least 3 of the following symptoms must also be present:
· Diminished need for sleep
· Excessive talking or pressured speech
· Racing thoughts or flight of ideas
· Clear evidence of distractibility
· Increased level of goal-focused activity at home, at work, or sexually
· Excessive pleasurable activities, often with painful consequences
Examination of patients with suspected bipolar affective disorder includes evaluation using the Mental Status Examination as well as assessment of the appearance, affect/mood, thought content, perception, suicide, homicide/violence/aggression, judgment/insight, cognition and physical health. Although bipolar disorder is diagnosed based on the patient’s history and clinical course, laboratory studies may be necessary to rule out other potential causes of the patient’s signs and symptoms as well as to have baseline results before administering certain medications. Laboratory tests that may be helpful include the following: CBC count, ESR levels, fasting glucose levels, electrolyte levels, protein levels, thyroid hormone levels, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, liver and lipid panel, substance and alcohol screening.
The treatment of bipolar affective disorder involve a combination of psychotherapy and medication.
Medications used to manage patients with bipolar disorder include the following:
· Benzodiazepines - for acute agitation (e.g. lorazepam, clonazepam)
· Antimanic agents (e.g. lithium)
· Anticonvulsants (e.g. carbamazepine, valproate sodium, valproic acid, divalproex sodium, lamotrigine)
· First-generation antipsychotics (e.g. inhaled loxapine, haloperidol)
· Second-generation antipsychotics (e.g. asenapine,...