Black Holes: What Scientist Know About Them

2213 words - 9 pages

Space has been mesmerizing humans since the beginning of time; from the fascinated star-gazing child to the great minds of Plato, Aristotle, and Galileo. Space contains countless mysteries. One of these mysteries is black holes. As far as information about space goes, scientists know a moderate amount of information about black holes. Scientists know how black holes are made, how they affect objects around them, and how to spot them in space.
Firstly, there are different types of black holes: Astrophysical, Supermassive, Mathematical, and Physical. A Physical, or regular, black hole is then categorized by its three properties: mass, spin, and magnetic field. A black hole with no spin and no magnetic field is a Schwarzchild black hole. A black hole with spin but no magnetic field is a Reissner-Nordstrøm. Finally, a black hole with both spin and a magnetic field is a Kerr black hole.
All regular black holes are formed when a star collapses into an object that is so compacted nothing can escape the force of gravity. Stars that are about five times the size of the sun are only capable of being black holes. If the star does not have enough gravitational force acting upon it, the star will just cool down into a white dwarf. A star is a balance between two forces, the inward pressure of gravity and the outward pressure of radiation. Once a star has converted all its energy from its element stockpiles it reaches the element of iron. Iron atoms cannot create energy when fused together. The star stops emitting radiation which causes the inward pressure of gravity to overcome the now nonexistent outward pressure of radiation. The star implodes and a black hole is formed.
All black holes have two major components. The collapsed center of a black hole is called the singularity. The “point of no return” of a black hole is called the event horizon. The event horizon is where the gravitation force of the black hole is strong enough to capture light. Reissner-Nordstrøm and Kerr Black holes have an extra two components. They have an ergosphere, which is formed when a black hole spins and distorts space around the event horizon. Reissner-Nordstrøm and Kerr black holes also have a static limit. The static limit is the boundary between the ergosphere and normal space. Also, black holes are not static objects. Dieter Brill states that “a black hole grows as more matter falls through its horizon.”
The Schwarzchild black hole was the first type of black hole to be discovered. Einstein created a mathematical formula that he thought was purely hypothetical, however, an astronomer by the name of Karl Schwarzchild discovered a way to apply Einstein’s formula in a manner that would prove black hole existence. Scientist then knew what to look for in space and discovered black holes shortly after.
The Reissner-Nordstrøm black hole is more common than the Schwarzchild black hole. The spin from the Reissner-Nordstrøm black hole makes it have some different properties...

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