This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Bladder Epithelium Essay

1434 words - 6 pages

Researchers believe that normal repair of the epithelial lining of the bladder does not occur in patients who develop IC (ARHP, 2008). One theory proposes that the bladder epithelium or lining of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) is damaged due to bladder injury and exposes the sensory nerves to irritants and triggers a noxious sensation. The damaged epithelium allows absorption of potassium and urea into the bladder wall (Klutke & Klutke, 2008). The damaged epithelium may lead to mast cell activation and the release of histamine. It is proposed that vasoactive, nociceptive, and proinflammatory molecules released from mast cells create neuronal sensitization and emit neurotransmitters that continue to stimulate the mast cells in the bladder and play an important role in the chronic and painful symptoms of IC (Sant, Kempuraj, Marchand, & Theoharides, 2006). There may be a possibility that heredity may play a part in some forms of IC. In a few cases, IC has affected a mother and a daughter or two sisters, but it is not usually familial (Clemens, Joyce, Wise, & Payne, 2007). Data has also shown that patients with IC have a higher incidence of certain immunological or allergic conditions. These conditions include allergies, irritable bowel syndrome, sensitive skin, vulvodynia, fibromyalgia, and migraine headaches (ARHP, 2008).
Interstitial cystitis is divided into two categories: ulcerative or classic and nonulcerative or Messing-Stamey types. The classic or ulcerative type clinically presents with a diffusely reddened appearance to the bladder surface epithelium associated with one or more ulcerative patches surrounded by mucosal congestion. The ulcers are called Hunner ulcers. Hunner ulcer upon cystoscopic examination is the hallmark of classic interstitial cystitis. In the United States, this type is rare and may be more resistant to therapy. The nonulcerative type of IC is characterized by similar clinical symptoms but the cystoscopic findings are absent (Rovner & Goudelocke, 2010).
Diagnosis and Management
There are no established diagnostic criteria for IC (Homma et al., 2009). Symptoms of IC are similar to those of other disorders of the bladder and all organic causes of the pain must be ruled out before considering a diagnosis of IC (Clemens et al., 2007). The diagnosis of IC is based on the presence of pain related to the bladder, usually accompanied by frequency and urgency of urination, exclusion of other diseases that could cause the symptoms and cytoscopic findings (Homma et al., 2009). Diagnostic tests that help rule out other diseases include urinalysis, urine culture, cystoscopy, biopsy of the bladder wall and urethra, and distention of the bladder under anesthesia (Clemens et al., 2007).
In 1987 the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) published a definition of IC to provide researchers with guidelines for selecting comparable study populations. The NIDDK criteria include 18...

Find Another Essay On Bladder Epithelium

Digestive System Essay

1012 words - 4 pages swallowing food may enter the respiratory passages and a cough reflex expels the bolus. Oesophagus The oesophagus (about 10") is the first part of the digestive tract proper and shares its distinctive structure. Basic tissue layers of the gut are 1. mucosa. Innermost, moist lining membrane. Epithelium (friction resistant stratified squamous in oesophagus, simple beyond) plus a little connective tissue and smooth muscle. 2. submucosa. Soft

Anatomy Course Objectives Essay

1094 words - 4 pages ) Trachea and bronchi: Structure and location. 3) Lungs: Location. Lobes. Relationships. Pedicles. Bony thorax. Respiratory muscles. V. Gastrointestinal: 1) Boca. Salivary glands: Mouth. Oral cavity. Boundaries and structure. Palate. Dental arches. Teeth: incisors, canines, premolars and molars. Oral epithelium. Floor of the mouth. Mylohyoid and hyoglossus muscles. Innervation. Salivary glands: parotid, submandibular and

“Determination of Aurora-A amplification in colon cancer by copy number PCR as a biomarker of resistance to chemotherapy”.

2062 words - 9 pages . Furthermore, a group led by Wang et. al [2006] showed transgenic mice over-expressing Aurora-A in mammary epithelium caused neoplasmic transformation preceded by centrosome amplification, chromosome tetraploidization and premature segregation of sister chromatids establishing Aurora-A as an oncogene that causes malignant transformation through the initiation of genomic instability. In addition, Aurora-A is also a key regulatory component within the p53

The Gold Standard to Reduce Scar Formation

2257 words - 9 pages the systemic absorption of bevacizumab after IV injection could be explained by penetration of the VEGF-antibody from the vitreous into the inner retina, photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium, presumably regulated by active transport of the Müller cells. Upon arrival in the choroidal blood vessels, the VEGF inhibitor is substantially transferred into the systemic blood circulation. Moreover, they also showed that bevacizumab was able to

"Metastatic Uterine Cancer"

1542 words - 6 pages " ( The most recent statistics show that for men the most common cancer is lung cancer, prostate cancer, large bowel cancer and bladder cancer. For women the figures are breast cancer, large bowel cancer, lung cancer and cancer of ovaries ( CANCERSome cancer may spread to different organs of the body including the lungs. When this occurs the second cancer is called secondary lung cancer. It is not the same

Renal Failure, its Types and Symptoms

1485 words - 6 pages inflammation, toxins, drugs, infection, or reduced blood supply. This is a consequence from direct damage to the kidney, and the glomerular filtration rate falls due to impaired renal blood flow disrupting the integrity of the tubule epithelium leading to a backleak (Brady, Singer, 1995). The last pathological stage is the postrenal. In this stage there is a sudden obstruction of urine flow due to an enlarged prostate, kidney stones, bladder tumor, or


7536 words - 30 pages capable of maintaining itself.2. All cells come from pre-existing cells.3. All organisms are composed of cells.5. What are the functions of cilia and flagella in the human body?Both work to produce motion - either of materials, as in ciliated epithelium, or of the cell as in the sperm's flagellum.6. List the 4 cell types you observed and give a brief description of their structure as it relates to their functions:1. Sperm: small & flagellated

Aniridia: A Panocular Developmental Malformation

2185 words - 9 pages vary from mild peripheral vascularization to complete corneal vascularization, opacification and keratinization. It is believed that the cornea is invaded by conjunctival epithelium due to limbal stem cell failure. (6, 18, 25) Nystagmus and Foveal Hypoplasia are extremely common ocular features while Optic Nerve Hypoplasia is found in up to 10% of cases.(18, 26) Glaucoma is also another frequent association reported in 30-51% of patients. It

Applications of Microbial Bioremediation

1985 words - 8 pages is present in earth’s crust, in clay and also in sulphur rich regions (Henker 2009). It is colourless, tasteless and odourless (Ahsan et al. 2000). It is a very common contaminant of ground water. When this water is consumed for drinking then it may cause lung disorders, kidney failures, bladder and skin cancer. Therefore, its presence poses a serious life threat to humans as well as other animals also. Due to this reason, removal of arsenic

brain and nerves system

3578 words - 15 pages cerebral hemispheres=telencephalon, related to the most complex manifestations of mental and intellectual activity, develops from the anterior cerebral bladder. Hemispheres (which are responsible for the opposite body half, the right hemisphere is responsible for the movement of the left leg , left arm etc.the left hemisphärecontrols movement of the right leg, right hand etc and contains the centers of speech) are connected through the corpus

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator

2479 words - 10 pages , therefore the protein doesn’t reach the plasma membrane (marieb and hoehn), leaving very few remaining proteins to regulate ion transport. Cystic fibrosis affects the function of exocrine glands within the body, the CFTR protein is found in multiple cell types within the body including the liver, sweat ducts, submucosal glands, lung epithelium, pancreas and reproductive tract (Leeds Method of Management, 2008). The NHBLI (2013) explains that

Similar Essays

Epithelial Tissue Essay

1295 words - 5 pages Resource. Retrieved from Bernd, K. [Webpage]. (2010). Simple Squamous Epithelium. Davidson College Biology Department. Retrieved from Hoehn, K. & Marieb, E. N. (2007). Human Anatomy & Physiology, Seventh Ed. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education, Inc. Nemours. [Webpage]. (2012). Kids Health: Chronic Kidney Diseases. The Nemours Foundation. Retrieved from

How To Prevent A Uti? Essay

572 words - 3 pages . Oestrogen increases the integrity of the lining (epithelium) of your urinary tract and helps secrete antimicrobial proteins within your bladder. Therefore, oestrogen helps you prevent UTIs. Take antimicrobial medications only according to your doctor’s prescription. Sometimes, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to prevent UTIs and allow the urinary tract to heal. Follow the instructions, especially regarding the dose and the duration carefully.

Ketamine: A Cure For Depression? – A Critique

1231 words - 5 pages News, 2013). Ketamine in the bladder has shown to attack the transitional cell epithelium of the bladder wall causing it to become inflamed and ulcerate (Logan, 2011). Increasingly, surgeons have to treat this side effect with a total cystectomy, which can leave patients with life-long urinary catheters. Moreover, the problem with the studies being done using ketamine as a form of treatment is its inability to be a double blind study design. Due

The Microbiology Of The Vibrio Cholerae Bacterium

1573 words - 6 pages the human system and defeating the body’s powerful immune system. With its sibling bacterium Escherichia coli, V. cholerae has become one of the most dominant pathogens in the known world. V. cholerae’s strategies in causing the infamous deadly diarrhea have been widely studied, from the irritation of the intestinal epithelium to the stimulation of capillary leakage, as well as the internal effects of the disease such as the Peyer’s patches on the