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Blood Donation Essay

3099 words - 12 pages

A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions and/or made into biopharmaceutical medications by a process called fractionation (separation of whole-blood components). Donation may be of whole-blood (WB), or of specific components directly (the latter called apheresis). Blood banks often participate in the collection process as well as the procedures that follow it. In the developed world, most blood donors are unpaid volunteers (voluntary non-remunerated repeat donations, VNRD) who donate blood for a community supply. In poorer countries, established supplies are limited and donors usually give blood when family or friends need a transfusion (directed donation). Many donors donate as an act of charity, but in countries that allow paid donation some donors are paid, and in some cases there are incentives other than money such as paid time off from work. Donors can also have blood drawn for their own future use (autologous donation). Donating is relatively safe, but some donors have bruising where the needle is inserted or may feel faint. Potential donors are evaluated for anything that might make their blood unsafe to use. The screening includes testing for diseases that can be transmitted by a blood transfusion, including HIV and viral hepatitis. The donor must also answer questions about medical history and take a short physical examination to make sure the donation is not hazardous to his or her health. How often a donor can give varies from days to months based on what he or she donates and the laws of the country where the donation takes place. For example in the United States, donors must wait eight weeks (56 days) between whole blood donations but only seven days between platelet pheresis donations.[1] The amount of blood drawn and the methods vary. The collection can be done manually or with automated equipment that only takes specific portions of the blood. Most of the components of blood used for transfusions have a short shelf life, and maintaining a constant supply is a persistent problem. This has led to some increased interest in autotransfusion, whereby a patient's blood is salvaged during surgery for continuous reinfusion - or alternatively, is "self-donated" prior to when it will be needed. (Generally, the notion of "donation" does not refer to giving to one's self, though in this context it has become somewhat acceptably idiomatic.) Contents [hide] 1 Types of donation 2 Screening 2.1 Recipient safety 2.2 Donor safety 2.3 Blood testing 3 Obtaining the blood 3.1 Site preparation and drawing blood 3.2 Whole blood 3.3 Apheresis 4 Recovery and time between donations 5 Complications 6 Storage, supply and demand 6.1 Storage and blood shelf life 6.2 Demand for blood 6.3 Donation levels 7 Donor health benefits 8 Donor compensation 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading Types of donation[edit] A blood collection bus (bloodmobile) from Children's Hospital Boston at a manufacturing facility...

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