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Body Builders And Athletes: The Methods And Treatments Of Anabolic Steroids

2049 words - 8 pages

Literature Review
Testosterone is responsible for a males physical and emotional maturity, it regulates sperm growth, cognitive abilities, aggression, and sexual arousal among many things. Muscle development is by far the most adhered topic though when it comes to testosterone. Synthetic testosterone, known as anabolic steroids, has a bad connotation given to it when discussed. Since its discovery in 1935, synthetic productions of this male hormone have been advanced and used by all ages and genders. The methods and treatments of anabolic steroids though are administered for uses other than aiding bodybuilders and athletes.

As stated in the introduction paragraph, synthetic testosterone began its development in 1935, stemming from the natural hormone secreted from male testicles (Hoberman, 1995). Two Austrian researchers can be credited with the beginning evolutions of synthetic testosterone when they applied the principle of similia similibus, which is a treatment of an organ with itself (Oskar Zoth and Fritz Pregl ). Quickly after its newfound advancements found to build lean body muscle, it quickly began to be used by athletes and bodybuilders (Hoberman, 1995). It isn’t a surprise that when used for the promotion of muscle advancement, there have been reported side effects including impaired liver function, increased aggression, and reproductive issues (Hoberman, 1995). Note that these are common side effects when a standard, healthy individual abuses the anabolic steroid. When abused recreationally by women, there have been noticed adverse effects such as a husky voice and hair growth (Hoberman, 1995). Our human hormone that naturally regulates and controls muscle development is found in the pituitary gland. This tells our bodies to produce a peptide amino acid, which helps to regulate things such as metabolism, body fluids, and bone growth. This process of muscle development synthetically is referred to as protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is what stimulates your hormone receptors, telling your body that it needs to grow and increase insulin growth. An annual review of nutrition done by two researchers, Rooyackers and Sreekumaran, has shown that, “Protein synthesis is stimulated only in the presence of a high amino acid supply. A combination of the stress hormones (glucagon, glucocorticoids, and catecholamine) causes muscle catabolism, but the effects of the individual hormones on human muscle and their mechanisms of action remain to be clearly defined” (Rooyakers & Sreekumaran, 1997). Protein Synthesis is the result of anabolic hormones administrations. The American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism aided to this formation of protein synthesis by testing the variations of synthesis based on an individual’s anabolic response to administration. They studied development of models to predict anabolic response to testosterone administration in healthy young men. The ages of the men ranged from 18-35 who did not use...

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