Bomb Threats And Bomb Hoaxes In The Philippines: Spatial And Temporal Patterns

1988 words - 8 pages

The analysis, interpretation, and understanding of spatial and temporal patterns of criminal activity is well within the field of environmental criminology (Wortley & Mazerolle, 2008). In this field, crime is the main focus of theory, analysis, and practice, not the person. Crime is seen as a product of person-situation interaction, and is greatly determined by the criminogenic environments in which it is carried out. Since criminogenic environments and human activities are not randomly distributed across space and time, it follows that crime distribution across time and space is also non-random. Thus, the “where” and “when” of crimes can be visualized and be subjected to advanced analysis using techniques in geography. The visualization of crime in space and time is very important in optimally deploying limited police and community resources for crime prevention purposes.

There are three complementing theories in environmental criminology that attempt to explain the patterning of crimes in space and time. The first theory is the rational choice perspective (Cornish & Clarke, 2008). This theory explicates the nature of crime and its actor. In this perspective, crime is considered to be purposive and rational, and, thus, the actor is also purposive and rational. This actor consistently calculates the risk and benefits of his criminal activities or acts leading to these activities, and according to Cornish & Clarke (2008: 25) “will try to select the best available means to achieve them.” However, they are quick to say that because of situational constraints met along the way upon planning or while committing an offense, the offender would likely settle for satisfactory and sufficient outcomes, not really the intended optimal benefits to be gained. Crime happens when this rational and motivated offender converges with the suitable target in the absence of a capable guardian (Cohen & Felson, 1979). This is where the routine activity approach comes in. Recent rehashing of the theory, however, results in the depiction of a more comprehensive crime triangle; actually two triangles; one engulfing the other (see Felson, 2008; Felson, 1995). In this new version, crime happens when a motivated offender, who is freed from the control of a handler, converges with a suitable target with no capable guardian at a given place with no manager or with ineffective management to control crime. In addition, this convergence of the offender and the target is largely dictated by the routine activities of the two. Crime pattern theory combine the two preceding theories in attempting to explain why crimes are patterned in space and time (Brantingham & Brantingham, 2008). In this theory, an individual, criminal or non-criminal, has a routine travel route frequently traversed in his everyday life. For instance, a professor might have a habitual route from residence to the university, from the university to the church or mall, from there back to his/her residence. And...

Find Another Essay On Bomb Threats and Bomb Hoaxes in the Philippines: Spatial and Temporal Patterns

Memories of the Atomic Bomb Shown in "Children Are Game" and "Atomic Bomb"

2518 words - 10 pages faces when dealing with such traumatic events, into their work by using cycles of memory and forgetting. Through this process Warhol and Gardner create a venue through which significant public discussion can occur about the bomb and people can discern for themselves the accuracy of the generally accepted public memory of the bomb. In Edward Brunner's book Cold War Poetry he writes "to live in the Atomic Age is to acknowledge the citizen is much

Pros and Cons of the Atomic Bomb in WWII

1007 words - 4 pages that they were suicidal, with their kamikaze pilots and no real hope of defeating the allied nations. America has always, and most likely will always place a high value on American lives. In order to protect these lives and to insure that the world is safe for democracy, American leaders had to make a very tough decision, whether or not to drop the atomic bomb on Japan. This act would essentially be trading Japanese lives for American lives

Explain the spatial variations in the world patterns of fertility and mortality

986 words - 4 pages them through welfare. With lesser number of people in the new generation, there will be a lack of skills available and countries have to outsource, encouraging migrants from other countries to help maintain the economy and increase the population, at the same time hoping that the migrants will help increase the birth rate.Thus comparing developing countries with developed countries, we are able to see the variation patterns of fertility and mortality rates as developing countries tend to have a high fertility/mortality rate while developed countries have a low fertility/mortality rate.

The Allies and the Atomic Bomb

914 words - 4 pages known as the Soviet-Japanese war, showing Russia’s merciless response after the atomic bomb was dropped (Mc Millan). Japan, at a total disadvantage, came to the verge of collapse, just as the Allies had intended. The United Kingdom, which is the major power in the Allies, was the strongest supporter of the plan of the atomic bomb. Along with the United States, the United Kingdom wrote the Potsdam Declaration which promised “prompt and utter

The Allies and the Atomic Bomb

1119 words - 5 pages the two major countries of the Axis Powers and finding the betrayal of Axis Powers in the Soviet non-aggression pact unbearable, decided to join the Allied Forces and turned against Japan. (Kuran). Ignoring Japan’s secret proposal for alliance, Joseph Stalin, the tsar of Russia, met with President Truman concerning about the details of the possible effects of the atomic bomb. (Dannen). Right after the bombing on Japan, Russia declared war on Japan

The Atomic Bomb And The Manhatten Project

1776 words - 7 pages The Atomic Bomb and the Manhattan Project It was December 7, 1942 a beautiful mourning in Pearl Harbor. When out of the blue, hundreds of Japanese planes bomb and either sunk or severely damaged eight battle ships and at least thirteen other naval ships that were docked on the shore. This spark is what involved the United States the forest fire known as World War II. My paper is not on the war itself, but is on the atomic bomb, and what was

Klaus Fuchs and the Atomic Bomb

672 words - 3 pages Did you know that in 1949 we almost gave the secrets of the atomic bomb to the Russians? Emil Julius Klaus Fuchs was the spy that could have seriously changed our future as we know it. Klaus Fuchs was born into a Lutheran family and eventually joined the Communist Party of Germany. He soon fled to England following the rise of the Nazis in 1933. As a brilliant young scientist, he earned his doctorate in Physics from the University of Bristol in

The Atomic Bomb Human Beings and Nature

1898 words - 8 pages The Atomic Bomb Human Beings and Nature With the surrender of Germany on May 1, 1945, the United States and its allies were well on their way to winning World War II and resuming peace in Europe. Japan was the only country still in their path. American forces soon began capturing islands off the coast of Japan including Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Since the Japanese refused to surrender, the United States began planning a ground attack on

The Hydrogen Bomb and Nuclear Warfare

1191 words - 5 pages The Hydrogen Bomb and Nuclear Warfare "At that moment.... there flashed into my mind a passage from the Bhagavad-Gita, the sacred book of the Hindus: 'I am become death the shatterer of worlds.'" July 16, 1945: J. Robert Oppenheimer and a group of American scientists witnessed the startling fruits of their labor; in the desert of Alamogordo, New Mexico, the first explosion of a nuclear weapon. Prior to this moment all known

The Bomb

1692 words - 7 pages about 31,000 feet and finished the settings on "Little Boy", the atomic bomb sitting in the bomb bay. At 8:11 a.m. "The Bomb" was dropped on Hiroshima.Much controversy has swelled in the decades that have followed the Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Many people understand that the bombing of Hiroshima was seen as a possible necessity at the time to end the war. But why was Nagasaki bombed? There are opinions that say Japan got the message

The Use and Necessity of the Atomic Bomb in World War II

1800 words - 7 pages Part A – Plan of Investigation This investigation focuses on the use and necessity of the atomic bomb in World War II. To what extent did the atomic bomb dropped by the United States during World War II save lives? This will be investigated using websites, books, military accounts, and newspaper articles. Military calculations of what potentially could have happened had the United States invaded Japan instead of dropping the bomb will be

Similar Essays

Bomb Threats And Bomb Hoaxes In The Philippines: Spatial And Temporal Patterns

2002 words - 9 pages Results In this section, the results of the analyses conducted will be presented. The section is divided into three: (a) characteristics of bomb threats and bomb hoaxes; (b) temporal patterns; (c) spatial patterns; and (d) space-time patterns. Characteristics of bomb threats One hundred two bomb threats covering the period January 2010 to April 2014 were recorded; majority were low level threats (96%), followed by medium level threats (4

Bomb Threats And Bomb Hoaxes In The Philippines: Spatial And Temporal Patterns

2144 words - 9 pages aimed to explore the spatial and temporal patterns of bomb threats in the Philippines. Indeed, bomb threats and bomb hoaxes have spatial and temporal patterns. These events are disproportionately concentrated at few locations across the country and at specific times. Specifically, majority of the threats and hoaxes occurred at the highly urbanized area, National Capital Region or Metropolitan Manila, of the country, although some events are scattered

Bomb Threats And Bomb Hoaxes In The Philippines: Spatial And Temporal Patterns

1903 words - 8 pages In the Philippines, bomb threats directed to a building, anything, or any person (even if it is a joke) is a criminal offense. A national law passed in 1980 penalizes “anyone, who by word of mouth or through the use of the mail, telephone, telegraph, printed materials and other instrument or means of communication, willfully makes any threat or maliciously conveys, communicates, transmits, imparts, passes on, or otherwise disseminates false

In 1989, A Bomb Was Dropped On The Boston Banking Industry When A Fed Study Of Neighborhood Lending Patterns Provided Evidence Of Discrimination

3055 words - 12 pages stem from discrimination - including unintentional, but real actions on the part of lenders.What is the case about?In 1989, a bomb was dropped on the Boston banking industry when a FED study of neighborhood lending patterns provided evidence of discrimination. Black and Hispanic applicants were failing to meet the credit criteria. A fact confirming this study is the following. The Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1974 (HMDA) required that banks