Axis Two: Illnesses
“A personality disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
There are several different mental illnesses that can branch off from mental disorders. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dependent personality disorder (DPD) are only two. Both of these disorders can be defined in part as having a strong emotional attachment to people and a need to be reliant upon others in some manner. Individuals diagnosed with DPD will often see themselves as unable to do everyday challenges in their life without the help of others. According to the DSM-V, “Dependent personality disorder is a pattern of submissive and clinging behavior related to an excessive need to be taken care of” (2013). They are often scared that if they show any kind of independence that the people that they depend on will reject them. They fear rejection so they will submit to anyone who will say that they will offer care and protection even if they do not follow through with the promise (Dependant Personality Disorder, 2007).
BPD is a serious mental disorder with a characteristic pervasive pattern of instability in affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and self-image (Lieb, Zanarini, Schmahl, Linehan, & Bohus, 2004). People who have been diagnosed with BPD tend to have a range of feelings of emptiness and loneliness. Childhood trauma and genetic factors can have a huge factor in helping with the diagnosis of BPD. To have a proper diagnosis of BPD, the beginning assessments must be evaluated carefully in a clinical setting. Both of these disorders meet all of the Axis I criteria of major depression, substance abuse, some form of anxiety disorder and eating disorder. These disorders are a branch off Axis I (Lieb, Zanarini, Schmahl, Linehan, & Bohus, 2004). Symptoms of BPD according to the DSM-V include frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, identity disturbances (focusing on an unstable self-image or sense of self), impulsivity, recurrent suicidal behaviors or self-mutilation, instability of mood, chronic feelings of emptiness, inappropriate intense anger, as well as severe dissociative symptoms (2013).
Different schools of thought in psychology have different ideas and procedures when dealing with psychological disorders. Therapists who closely identify with psychodynamic perspective commonly use psychoanalysis or psychodynamic psychotherapy. The focus in this type of therapy is that it is essential to change for the patient to understand personal thought processes in order for change to take place and for the individual to have confidence in the therapist. In both types of therapy, the...