Botulism or sausage poisoning, name “botulism” similar “botulus” in Latin word meaning sausage was first recognized in late 1700s after occurs the disease in southern Germany. Around 1820s, German neurologist Justinus Kerner studied and explained that the disease relates to ingestion of spoiled sausage. Kerner isolated the substance from sausage and described that the sausage had poisonous substance which was responsed for clinical signs connected with botulism but the deadly poison was still unknown. In 1895, have been discovered that the offending etiological agent in spoiled was a bacterium which is Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum) by Emile Van Ermengem and published in 1897 (Julie and Dorothy, 2007). The bacterium Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus and caused by action of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNTs). Common property of production of spores by C. botulinumn which have high resistance to physical and chemical agents. The resistant spores can spread around the world in the biosphere and spread in soil, dust, water, vapors, both fresh and salt-water mud as well as sewage and finally can contaminate in several foods. Under optimal nutritional and physical condition for C. botulinumn (anaerobiosis, low acid which pH more than 4.5, low concentration of salt and sugar, nutrient sufficientcy) form of vegetative cell occurring and finally become BoNTs from the spores. At temperature 100°C, these organisms are viable of surviving for up 2 hours. C. botulinumn has a very efficient neurotoxin, a mouse is killed by a little 10 picograms of neurotoxin and 1 nanogram per kilogram of body mass is toxic dose in humans. At temperature 85°C, these neurotoxins is heat labiled and is rapidly inactivated.(Robert, 2001). Soil, sediment and intestinal composition of insect and animal except in healthy humans are the natural habitats of neurotoxigenic clostridia. Neurotoxigenic clostridia are saprophytic and have not obligatory relationship with an animal host, which different from other pathogenic bacteria. These botulinum neurotoxins can cause acute neuroparalytic disease of humans and animals whose neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of somatic nerves is the primarily acting of BoNTs. Lack of smooth muscle activity and glandular, secretory functions and impairing certain autonomic activities are affected by BoNTs blockade releasing of acetylcholine (ACh) and neurotransmission at cholinergic parasympathetic and postganglionic sympathetic nerves (Eric and Cesare, 2008).
The bacterium Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus and caused by action of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNTs) which causes a flaccid paralysis. The different neurotoxin-producing organisms from C. botulinumn consist of seven distinct serotype which are deided into A, B, C, D, E, F, and G according to the difference of terminal binding comfiguration. Bacteriophages carried genes that are encoded the neurotoxins C,D, and E, a...