Bourbon Reform & How It Affected the Independence Movement
Historians refer to the period 1759-1763 as the Bourbon Latin America, due to the praised reform activities that took place during this period. These reforms were developed and facilitated by enlightened government leaders and reformers like Jose Patino and Princes of the House of Bourbon. The importance of these reforms has made the earlier periods of Bourbon Latin America and the later periods of Habsburgs rule to be used together. Historical studies in this topic majorly base their interests on the first Bourbons that were slightly involved in the Spanish Succession War that took place in 1702 to1713. Habsburgs’ regime had devastated Spain as a result of the high number of wars and defeats the empire had realized both internally and externally. This country had faced bankruptcy; Spain soldiers even became weak in wars and escaped from the battles. Spain suffered in America from colonization of the English, the Dutch and the French. This enlightenment era and its effects came to be realized in the eve of Spain’s independence from its colonizers. The Bourbons were inspired to create a New Spain using mercantilist policies that were employed by regimes in the early modern world to revive their economies.
Filipe V succeeded in this Succession War, which allowed the Bourbon Monarchy to initiate reforms in effort to centralize Spain’s government; reform country’s financial systems; reinstate and reinforce the country’s military forces. The House of Bourbons had three princes, Filipe V (1700-1746), Ferdinand VI (1746-1759) and Charles III (1759-1788) that worked together to facilitate these reforms that modernized Spain completely. These reforms enabled the country to: arm itself with weapons, become industrious, engage and succeed in agricultural practices. These reforms were necessary so as to overpower influences by colonial powers like England that had dominated the region during the eighteenth century.
Charles III later reinforced the reform works of Filipe V. In the industrial sector, technical educational systems were instituted; barriers like stigmatization that existed in manual work were eliminated; foreign experts to work and improve locally established textile firms were invited. In agriculture, Charles III encouraged settlements of abandoned foreign peasant, protected privileges of agricultural corporations that had existed and among others.
Charles III also transformed the administration system from its complex nature designed by the Habsburgs regime to a French intendant system. This intendant system had made the Spain’s government realize increased efficiency in its administrative services as well as increased collection of revenues. This intendant system was effective in the big cities of Spain and the mining centers of the country. Spain nationals (Peninsulares) headed the new administrative system to facilitate its objectives. These...