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Boylan Notes Essay

466 words - 2 pages

* 634 - 644 = time of Arab expansion (Islam remained a chiefly Arab religion)o After they went into North Africa many non Arab people converted* Many ppl saw Islam as a well organized life* Way of life did not conflict w/ Muslim teachings (culture remained diverse)o Also Muslims tolerated Jews and Christians (more diverse)Political Divisions in the Islamic Empire:* Umayyads = strong military leaders* Muslim territories became dissatisfied w/ Umayyad rule* Non Arabs = angry b/c were treated like 2nd class citizens* 969 empire = split in ...view middle of the document...

strengthen armies* Abbasid caliphs surrounded themselves w/ luxury* Islamic civilization bloomed under their ruleo Period of greatest development* Arabic replaced Greek as dominant language of Middle East and North Africa* Harun al-Rashid (786 - 809) = friendly w/ Charlemagne the Frankish emperor* Another made friends w/ the ruler of the T'ang DynastyThe Muslims in Spain* 750 one Umayyad, Abdurrahman, escaped to Spain* 756 declares himself ruler of the Spanish Muslims* Ruled from Capitol @ CordovaThe Fatimids* Early 10th century next major division happens* Shiites in N Africa gain power + set up caliph = distant descendent of Muhammad's daughter Fatima* Added Egypt to their empire* Made Cairo capitol* Went form Morocco to Syria* Weakened Abbasid ruleRule Under the Turks:The Seljuk Turks* 1055 the Seljuk Turks conquer Baghdad* Seljuk leaders called themselves sultans (took over political power)* Abbasid caliphs became religious leaders* They defeat Byzantine forces, Byzantines call on Christians for help (prompting crusades)* Both empires weakened by crusadesThe Mongols* 1258 Asian Warier led by Hulagu (grandson of Genehis Khan), took Baghdad disposed of the Abbasid and ended Seljuk rule* stopped in Egypt by Islamic forces in 1260The Ottoman Turks* Osman ruled from 1290 - 1326

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