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Brain Activity In Depression And How Therapy Alters Its States

1812 words - 8 pages

Depression is a state of despondency marked by feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness. Clinical depression goes by many names depression, "the blues," biological depression, major depression. But it all refers to the same thing: feeling sad and depressed for weeks or months on end (not just a passing blue mood). Depression reflects a sad and/or irritable mood exceeding typical grief or sorrow. Furthermore, such sadness of depression is characterized by a greater intensity and duration. People tend to see themselves as failing even if they are not. Depression is one of the most common psychological problems. External experiences often initiate depression. For example, problems of a ...view middle of the document...

Therefore, I have tried to focus my paper on how therapy alters brain activity in depression.
Negative symptoms are thoughts, feelings, or behaviors normally present that are absent or diminished in a person with a mental disorder ( CITE). Instances of negative symptoms are social withdrawal, apathy (decreased motivation), poverty of speech (brief replies), inability to experience pleasure limited emotional expression, or defects in attention control. The term "negative symptoms" is specifically utilized for describing schizophrenia, but sometimes applied more loosely in reference to disorders such as depression or dementia. These symptoms may be tied in with altered brain wave activity or brain damage. They can be more difficult to diagnose than positive symptoms such as delusions or delusions because they present a lesser level of normal, desirable activity rather than the presence of undesirable or bizarre behavior. Side effects of certain medications, loss of positive emotions like hope or confidence usually as the result of situations in which one feels powerless, or a lack of stimulation in one's environment can also cause negative symptoms, so these possibilities must be ruled out before attributing the symptoms to a disorder.
Changes in the brain have an effect on many of the body's systems. For example, low levels of brain messengers (neurotransmitters) such as serotonin can alter your pain threshold. This means you become more sensitive to pain, especially back pain. Serotonin also affects sleep and lowers sex drive nearly half of everybody with depression has problems with sex. Depression not only makes a person feel sad and dejected it can also damage the brain permanently, so the person has difficulties remembering and concentrating once the disease is over. It has been said that up to 20 percent of depression patients never make a full recovery. This statistic varied as I completed my research there appears to wide variations from different sources
The conclusions of two projects conducted by Professor Videbech, a specialist in psychiatry at the Centre for Psychiatric produced the studies. His findings were that essentially depression leaves a physical mark on the brain and nearly a 10 percent reduction in the size of the hippocampus in some scenarios ( CITE). Excess cortisol has been linked to damage to the hippocampal neurons, an area of the brain important to memories. Studies have shown abnormalities;; in the glutamatergic system in depressed people, but it is not yet clear how this affects the brain and contributes to depression symptoms. Many brain chemicals ("neurochemicals") and hormones have been linked to the development of depression (e.g., norepinephrine, dopamine, thyroid hormones). However, research studies have implicated disturbances in the serotonin (5-HT) system and the Limbic Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (LHPA) axis as two of the neurobiological alterations most consistently associated with mood-altering...

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