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Brain Recovery After Brain Injury Or Trauma

1904 words - 8 pages

Introduction
This essay discusses processes involved in brain recovery after brain injury or trauma. This will be accomplished through discussing neural networks and the phenomenon they use to launch action potentials. The main focus in this writing explains the process of neuroplasticity in brain recovery and the use of Music therapy as a psychotherapy treatment used in brain rehabilitation. The essay will go further to describe the importance of learning experience in brain remission.
Brain recovery involves actions that follow brain injury or trauma. Injury to the brain may be caused by external forces such as blows to the head that may cause the brain to move inside the skull (Johnson, 2013) or tumours that exert pressure onto the brain or may results from genetic disorders (Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky, Jackson, & Urry, 2008). Examples of brain injuries include stroke, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease to name a few.
The human brain and that of any species contains nerve cells that link to each other connecting the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body (Johnson, 2013). These nerve cells are neurons that connected through synapses in a web-like fashion forming neural networks (Coon & Mitterer, 2001). Neural networks make generation and transmission of action potentials (known as electrical impulses) possible along neurons. An action potential is generated across an axon hillock of a nerve cell and is propagated along the axon by the opening of voltage-gated ion channels one after the other causing positive ions to flow in and out the axon (Johnson, 2013).
Transmission of action potentials from one neuron to the next involves the release of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic neuron to postsynaptic neurons across a synaptic gap (Cain et al, 2008; Johnson, 2013). The released neurotransmitters may cause the next neuron to fire or becomes less firing depending on the type of neurotransmitter and receptors they fall onto. An action potential is most likely to be generated when the postsynaptic neuron receives multi-excitatory inputs and less or none multi-inhibitory inputs. (Johnson, 2013). Before a postsynaptic neuron can fire its own action potential to the next neuron, it integrates the multi inputs it receives and decides whether or not to fire an action potential (Johnson, 2013).
On the subject of neural networks, brain recovery involves the changing of neural pathways at the synaptic level by the phenomenon neuroplasticity (Coon & Mitterer, 2001). According to Kolb and Whishaw (as cited in Barker & Roth, 2004) refers to changes in structure and number of glial cells [cells that structurally and functionally support nerve cells (Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky, Jackson, & Urry, 2008)]. over 40 years ago hydrotherapy was used as a treatment for brain injury (Aldridge, 1994) which has now been replaced by Music therapy which is “The clinical and evidence-based use of music intervention to achieve individual goals within a therapeutic...

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