Brain trauma also called Traumatic brain injury is an international cause of concern on the health desk. Traumatic brain injury is considered a global epidemic of the twenty first century in the mould of malaria and HIV/AIDS. As one of the leading causes of death and disability in children and adults in their most productive years, it causes major economic and social costs and imposes considerable demands on health service provision. Brain trauma can be classified as mild, moderate or severe depending on whether injury causes unconsciousness, how long the unconsciousness lasts and the severity of the injury. In this paper the writers will closely look at the causal factors of the brain trauma like falls, motor vehicles crashes and traffic related accidents, interpersonal violence, sport and recreational related injuries, anorexia and the effects like Alzheimer diseases, behavioural effects, cognitive effects, perceptual effects and physical effects.
Younis, Younis, Hamid, Musmar and Mawson (2011) define brain trauma as ‘a non-degenerative, non-congenital insult to the brain from an external physical force, possibly leading to permanent or temporary impairments of cognitive, physical and psychosocial functions with an associated diminished or altered state of consciousness’.
Younis et al (2011) assert that the leading cause of brain trauma is falls. In the United States for example, falls contribute about 32.5% of brain trauma. The prevalence of falls in causing brain trauma is prevalent in the children from 1-14 age groups and the elderly, that is, from 65 years and older ( Younis et al, 2011). The falls rate in the aforementioned in childhood is mainly attributed to a combination of factors amongst which include curiosity, immature and developing motor skills and lack of judgment. This is bolstered by statistics which points out that in the United States for example, falls contributes to 50% of brain traumas in children in the 1-14 years age group (Younis et al, 2011). In the Zimbabwean scenario for example, it is common site to see the young ones bandaged due to falls, falls are diverse, in some instances one from a mango tree headlong and in some instances children in Zimbabwe fall while leaning to ride bicycles. Falls happen in many setting, some occur at home and some at school and the severity of falls according to him is hive in low income families due to lack of lack of safety measures and equipment like window guards and stairway rails. Late adulthood is also prone to falls due to slowing down skills and sometimes impaired cognition Younis et al (2011), in the United States for example falls account for 65% of brain trauma in adults over the age of 65. Falls are normally non penetrative to the brain but leads to focal damage and diffuse damage to the axons, this is called closed head injury and broadly contributes to brain trauma.
Another cause of brain trauma according to (Gardner, 1975) is injuries due to motor vehicle crashes and...