“About 13 of every 10,000 babies born in the United States each year is born with Down syndrome. It affects an equal number of male and female babies” (Johnson P. A. 2014). Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that found across the world, however it is more prevalent in the United States. The cause of the disorder roots to the paring of the human chromosomes. A normal human receives 23 pairs of chromosomes, each pair coming from mother and father. In Down syndrome most people affected have an abnormal cell division of the chromosome. Both parents are carriers of the There are three types of variations that includes trisomy 21, mosaic, and translocation.
The type of mutation that occurs in Down syndrome is aneuploidy that is the irregular number of chromosomes in a cell. The most common of the three is the trisomy 21 that occurs in about 90% of people with the disorder. In this factor the human is given three copies of the chromosome 21 instead of the common two copies. This occurs due to the complications of the cell division in the process of the egg or sperm. The next case is mosaic which happen when there are inequality of cells with three copies of chromosome 21 and others with the original two copies. Mosaic appears when there is an unexpected cell division after fertilization. The last and the rarest form is translocation and that happens while the chromosome 21 in cell division is broken off and attached to another chromosome. Since the disorder is unexpected there are numerous amounts of risk factors that are possible based on the severity of the person.
The typical defect that takes place with a human affected is heart problems. In early infancy surgery needs to be taken place to avoid serious issues in the future. Atypical blood flow in the heart can result is low oxygen circulating through the body. ” Approximately 30–50% of all children with Down syndrome are found to have heart defects” (Johnson, P. A. 2014). Another risk factor taken place is the chance of contracting infectious diseases due the weak immunity. For example pneumonia can be caught easily. Having a weak immune systems makes catching diseases easier than most people do. The mental disorder dementia has been found in middle aged people and this makes a high risk of getting seizures. As the person ages there’s also an increased possibility of having diabetes, cataract and thyroid problems. Luckily, studies are increasing the life expectancy of patients. “In 1929, a baby born with Down syndrome often didn't live to age 10. Today, someone with Down syndrome can expect to live to 50 and beyond, depending on the severity of his or her health problems” (Mayo clinic 2011, April 7).
There are several signs and sypmtoms that used to determine whether a person has down syndrome. They can be found before the chld is born through The most obvious is the almond eyes that slant up and the flatness of the bridge of the nose. Next is that usually they have small hands, small feet,...