This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Overview Of Waste Pcb Recycling: An Integrated Approach

955 words - 4 pages

1. INTRODUCTION
Over the last two decades, the world has seen a rapid advancement and growth of electronic industries, as result of which the lifetime of electronic and electrical equipment is decreasing very fast. Due to high demand of newer products and continuous development of hardware as well as software section, the electrical and electronic equipment are replaced and discarded every day. As a consequence of that, a large volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or E-waste) is generated such as computers, monitors, household electronics, mobile phones, televisions etc. According to United Nations Environmental program, around 20-50 million tons of E-waste are generated worldwide per year[1]. Due to presence of environmentally hazardous components, these WEEE has been termed as “largest toxic waste problem of the 21st century”.
Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) are the indispensable part of the electronic equipment and account for ~3% by weight of WEEE[2]. Nevertheless, waste PCBs contains one of the most hazardous components of E-waste directory as well as most of the precious metals. The precious metal concentration such as gold, platinum, palladium concentration in waste PCBs is much higher than their respective primary ores. The presence of precious metals and lack of regulation and control on recycling industries in developing countries, the poorest stratum of population finds economic benefits in recovering of precious metals with non-scientific methods while simply dumping the non-profitable and hazardous elements. The conventional waste treatment of landfilling and incineration leads to release of the hazardous components to the environment endangering the eco-system. The backyard operations in Asia, Africa especially in China, India and Ghana, are worrisome because of the primitive way of recycling techniques that lead to most of the hazardous elements either leach into waste water stream or soil and can have adverse effect on the environment. Additionally, in some processes, new hazardous compounds such as dioxins and furans may be formed as the original e-waste components are degraded. As per the reported literature[3], more than 80% of children in Guiyu, China, one of the desired destinations of E-waste, have a blood lead level above 10µg/dl. The contamination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, water and air is found to be 100 times higher than the other places[4-6]. Therefore, with a proper recycling, these solid wastes can generate very good revenue with the prime objective of recycling vis-à-vis lowering of their impact on the environment in a sustainable manner. The advantages of such clean and environment friendly technology will be manifold, from reutilizations of resource to reduce the carbon footprint, from reduction of pollution to protect environment along with economic benefits to the organizations.
Manufacturers, environmental agencies...

Find Another Essay On Overview of waste PCB recycling: An integrated approach

An Overview of Postmodernism Essay

2754 words - 11 pages indicate why it was time for embracing something new. Literature and architecture were amongst the first areas in which the changes occurred from one ‘ism’ to another were visible enough to consider it valid. Artists showed rage and expressed their feelings towards modernism in a distinctive, abrupt way before accepting the new inclinations in style, an approach that later became the main characteristic of postmodernism. There was a preference for a

Life cycle and cradle-to-grave analysis of timber (discusses recycling, waste minimisation and ecological restoration)

1985 words - 8 pages . However, this approach is more qualitative and does not require the thorough data analysis that full scale LCA relies on. Considering the life cycle of a product + it's materials in a general way may, for example, lead to reducing packaging of products, using recyclable raw materials or improving the efficiency of the product when it is used by the customer. Waste can be reduced, energy can be saved and raw materials can be conserved.To be truly

Sociolinguistics and Fairy Tales; An Integrated Approach to Adult ESL Classroom Practice

1801 words - 7 pages conclusion, the research questions will be answered, showing an effective utilisation of language teaching and the integrated approach to language education. While deciphering whether the “prospectus” effectively demonstrates learners’ ability to generate themes, read codes, interpret texts and apply fairy tales to their everyday lives. Introduction In any language classroom, there will always be difficulties in selecting suitable texts

A Study on Awareness about Waste Segregation and Waste Recycling among the Post Graduate Students of University Hostels in Manasagangotri Campus

1511 words - 6 pages . Nishio et al (2005) examined the antecedents of recycling and reducing household waste based on an integrated waste reduction model. The model was tested using Japanese household recycling and reducing waste data. The results shows that attitude toward waste reduction behavior has effect on both recycling and reducing waste behavior. And attitude toward waste reduction is determined by involvement, perceived cost and benefit, accessibility of a

An Overview of Leadership Style

1496 words - 6 pages An overview of leadership style It is impossible to pinpoint precisely the time when interest in leadership styles emerged. However a set of experiments conducted by 3 social scientist in 1938 is a good time to begin. Kurt Lewin, Ronald Leppit, and Robert White used groups of children to study different approaches to exercising control. Their classic study identified three types of control: autocratic, democratic, and laissez faire. These three

An Overview of Airline Hijacking

2018 words - 8 pages creative. This text concerns itself with the history of airline hijackings. Airline Hijackings: An Overview Aircraft hijacking according to Ciottone (2006) “is defined as the armed takeover of an aircraft.” According to the author, most of the hijackings that took place before the September 11 terror attacks mostly used the unfortunate passengers of a hijacked plane as hostages and the hijacked aircraft as a means of transportation

An Overview of Title IX

983 words - 4 pages An Overview of Title IX In 1972 Congress passed the Educational Amendments. One section of this law, Title IX, prohibits discrimination against girls and women in federally funded education, including athletic programs. As a result of Title IX, women and girls have benefited from more participation opportunities and more equitable facilities. Women who were under 10 when Title IX passed have much higher sports participation rates than women

An Overview of Geothermal Energy

1041 words - 4 pages An Overview of Geothermal Energy To understand the history of geothermal energy, we must first understand what it is. At the center of the earth, the temperatures can reach extreme heats of up to 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The earth has many layers and as these layers come in contact with each other the heat from the deeper level conducts to the next level. For example, the layer closet to the earth’s core becomes hot from the

An Overview of Bilingual Education

5396 words - 22 pages Overview of Bilingual Education Is a second language a necessity in our world today? Should parents push for their child to learn two languages in elementary school? If we live in multicultural neighborhoods, trade with the global marketplace, and want to use all technology resources available, it is necessary to know two languages. Multilingual people and communities seem to have an edge over monolingual competition. This provides people

An Overview of Capital Punishment

2152 words - 9 pages An Overview of Capital Punishment Introduction     Capital punishment is punishment by death for committing a crime.  Since the early 1800's most executions have resulted from convictions for murder.  The death penalty has also been imposed for such serious crimes as armed robbery, kidnapping, rape, and treason.  There is much disagreement about whether or not capital punishment is effective in discouraging crime

An Overview of Selective Mutism

1766 words - 7 pages expected, despite speaking in other situations.” Selective mutism shifted in recent years from being viewed as a response to trauma sustained early in life to a manifestation of an anxiety disorder (Dow et al, 2004). This paper briefly covers all aspects of selective mutism from signs and symptoms to diagnosis and treatment. Selective mutism is a rare condition and some discrepancies exist pertaining to its incidence. Beidel and Turner (2005

Similar Essays

Recycling Of Waste Buildings Essay

3030 words - 12 pages role in evolution of species. Nature’s relation to Building Recycling Relating buildings to living organisms in an ecosystem, derelict structures would be classified as endangered species. Dereliction and abandonment of waste buildings occur through a timespan, which the level of decay increases over time. People do not realize the process of decay until there is dumping of waste such as litter and rubbish; Weeds and fungus would have

Importance Of Recycling Electronic Waste Essay

1188 words - 5 pages caused many problems to other countries. Instead of recycling the wastes, the recyclers are actually refurbishing the waste. Instead of solving the problem in an environmentally friendly way, “recyclers” have found that that they can make a lot more money just exporting those electronic waste since they are able to externalize their costs. Therefore, tons of electronic wastes are shipped to those developing countries where people have to remove the

An Evaluation Of Composting, Incineration, And Recycling

2306 words - 9 pages two processes require education and equipment. Secondly, composting method will give profit directly to that person who composted. When an individual makes composting in the yard, waste will affect the yard as fertiliser, so, the person save money, as he/she does not need to buy fertilizers. In contrast, person who puts waste in recycling or combusting bins, may or may not obtain the profit from those processes. The owner of recycling or

An Overview Of Mrp Essay

597 words - 2 pages items generate requirements for lower-level components, which are broken down by planning periods (eg, weeks) so that ordering, fabrication, and assembly can be scheduled for timely completion of end items while inventory levels are kept reasonably low.Material requirements planning is as much a philosophy as it is a technique, and as much an approach to scheduling as it is to inventory control.Historically, ordering and scheduling of assembled