In a power system world, breaker failure protection became a critical element to provide a back up protection for circuit breakers (CBs). Practically, every apparatus is equipped with primary protection to interrupt the current flow whenever a fault occurs. Thus, the breaker failure relay opens adjacent breakers to isolate the problem. Fast and secure breaker failure detection algorithm would be a critical challenge facing a numerical BF relay. In the first part, it presents the need for breaker failure protection. The second part addresses issues worth consideration when applying Breaker Failure Protection and lastly, advances towards breaker Failure Protection. Using algorithms significantly enhance the numerical BF protection.
Contingency analysis remains to be one of the great tasks that face protection engineers. The reason to this is due to the fact that a Protection Engineer has to focus on Murphy’s Law and Ohms Law concurrently. The design for PRS plays a key role in detecting any fault that happens on the power system and the possibilities of eruption of any fault in the protection system of the power system. When the protective relay system is order, the designers of the power system understand it but the condition changes when a failure is detected. Deriving solutions towards this failure is what makes a protection engineer proficient. The protection engineer can only succeed by understanding how operations of the system. The best approach that the engineer can have is to have a proper understanding of each component of the system as well as their interaction and overlaps needed.
I. THE NEED FOR BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION
To successfully analyze this topic, the differences between fault detection devices and fault interruption devices should be understood. Any disturbances like faults are detected by protective relays. The protective relays works in either way, interfere with the fault current system or cuts off any connection to the power system. Systems that lack breaker failure detection fail to analyze detection and interruption failures. This is not the case for breaker failure detection. The redundant relay systems play the role of detecting fault in case of failure (IEEE 8).
II. WHAT TO CONSIDER FOR BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION
Before considerations necessary for breaker failure detection, aspects of back up protection need to be focused. The aspects include sensitivity, speed and user friendliness together with maintenance required.
The question considered under this aspect is on the reliability of remote relays in detecting faults in the power system. A difficulty arises when analyzing the conditions that lead to system failure. The hindering factor is the load encroachment. The radial system has limitations in the fault current and the circuit load. The source acts as a controlling factor thereby making this system simple. Complications arise for networked systems. The...