Breast Cancer Essay

1976 words - 8 pages

BREAST CANCER
Introduction/Background
Cancer is characterized by unregulated/uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. The etiological factors of Cancer include both external factors (tobacco, infectious organisms, chemicals, and radiation) and inherent factors (inherited mutations, hormones, immune conditions, and mutations that occur from metabolism). The etiological factors may act together or in sequence to trigger the development of cancer. It may take several years for the manifestation of the disease to be obvious after the initial trigger.

CDC: Female Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by State, 2010

Incidence/Mortality
Breast cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy, it accounts for one third of all diagnosed female cancers in US, and it’s the second leading cause of cancer death in the world. About 6.6% of all breast cancer cases are diagnosed in women less than 40 of age, 2.4% in women less than 35, and 0.65% in women less than 30. [4].

CDC: Female Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Race and Ethnicity, U.S., 1999–2010

The incidence rates of breast cancer were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008 and the death rates have been declining since the early 1990s except in American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. There are obvious disparities in breast cancer death rates by state, socioeconomic status and race. Decline in death rates were observed in 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years while rates remained constant in the other 14 states. Annual
mammography and a clinical breast examination should be encouraged in patients aged 40 years or older for early detection and reduce complications. [2]. It is estimated that 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed among US women in 2013 and about 2,240 new cases in men. From 2002 to 2003 the incidence rate of breast cancer decreased by 7% and this was attributed to reduced use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), previously known as hormone replacement therapy. It is also expected that 64,640 new cases of in situ breast cancer will occur among women in 2013. The incidence rates of in situ breast cancer increased by 2.8% every year between 2005 and 2009.
It is estimated that 40,030 deaths from breast cancer (39,620 women, 410 men) are will occur in 2013. Breast cancer is second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Breast cancer death rates have been decreasing steadily since 1989, rates decreased by 3.0% per year in women younger than 50 and by 2.0% per year in women 50 and older between 2005 and 2009. This decline is attributed to prevention, early detection, improved healthcare services and reduced use of MHT.

CDC: Female Breast Cancer Death Rates by State, 2010


CDC: Female Breast Cancer Death Rates by Race and Ethnicity, U.S., 1999–2010

Signs and symptoms
There are no symptoms at the early stages of breast cancer which makes early detection even...

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