Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer among women today. Breast cancer is when the breast cell’s get out of control and grows too much, then create a tumor, which may or may not be malignant (cancerous). Risk factors are very important information for individuals to know so that there is a clearer picture of the risks. Signs and symptoms are also a part of the information an individual needs to be aware of to aid in the discovery of breast cancer. For women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer, having the proper treatment helps the outlook of the prognosis better. Overall, with the input of nursing interventions, individuals can be more educated on breast cancer, ...view middle of the document...
Menstruation beginning before the age of twelve and women who started menopause after the age of 55 is put at risk. Other body changes such as high breast density on a mammogram, abnormal cells in the breast, and specific breast changes are also risks. Genetic factors that put an individual at risk are family history or having a mother, daughter, or sister diagnosed with the breast cancer.
A past health history of invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, or benign (noncancerous) breast disease in the female or male are risk factors. Inherited genetic mutations raise the risks; mutations called BRAC1 and BRAC2 are the most common inherited causes for breast cancer. Non-modifiable risk factors such as gender and age put an individual at risk for developing breast cancer. Women over the age of 60 have a greater chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer. From women younger than 45, only 10-15 % are diagnosed with breast cancer; however, for aging and gender, development of breast cancer varies for different races and ethnicities. Approximately 2,000 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer annually, but 100 times more women will also be diagnosed. National Cancer Institute estimates over 190,000 women will be diagnosed every year.
Signs and Symptoms
The noticeable symptoms of breast cancer seem to be lumps or masses; however, women should always be aware of any changes to the breast or nipple. Different types of symptoms follow different types of breast cancer, but symptoms of different breast cancers often can relate to each other and also differ from person to person. Changes in size or shape such as an increase in one or both breast are common symptoms for noninvasive breast cancer types. Pain or swollen lymph nodes in or on any area of the breast should be cause for alarm. Discharge that is anything other than breast milk can be abnormal, especially if the discharge is blood. Invasive breast cancer types can cause symptoms such as changes in the way breasts feel such as hardness, tenderness, or warm. Peeling and flaking of the nipple skin is also abnormal; dimpling in the skin of the breast and around the nipple, resembling the skin of an orange, can be a sign of peau’d orange which is a sign of an invasive breast cancer type called inflammatory breast cancer.
To ensure the presence of breast cancer, and individual has to seek the medical advice of a health professional. The process of diagnosis starts with a physical examination which will give the health professional a chance to collect past and present health history to check for any past or present problems. Physical examination also includes a clinical breast exam (CBE) and involves checking for abnormal signs and symptoms using the techniques of inspection and palpation. An x-ray of the breasts, called a mammogram, is used in observing tissues and cells when the breast is pressed between two plates on a machine. To obtain pictures of breast tissue, a...