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Bribery And Extortion In International Transactions

1312 words - 5 pages

Bribery and Extortion in International transactionsIn my Term Paper I would to cover very difficult subjects which are Bribery and Extortion committed in transactions, first let us present short definition and its descriptions:Bribery is the practice of offering professional money or other favors in order to go around ethics in a variety of professions. It is a form of corruption and is generally illegal, or at least cause for penalties from professional organizations.For example, a motorist may bribe a police officer not to issue a ticket for speeding, a citizen seeking paperwork or utility line connections may bribe a functionary for faster service, a construction company may bribe a civil servant to award a contract, or a narcotics smuggler may bribe a judge to lessen criminal penalties. In some cases, the briber holds a powerful role and controls the transaction; in other cases, a bribe may be effectively extracted from the person paying it.Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person obtains money or other goods from another by threatening or inflicting harm to his person, reputation, or propertyBlackmail is one kind of extortion -- specifically, extortion by threatening another's reputation with the disclosure of infamous statements about him. Even if it is not criminal to disclose the information, it constitutes extortion to demand money or other consideration not to disclose it. Extortion is distinguished from robbery. In robbery, the offender steals goods from the victim whilst threatening him with force. In extortion, the victim willingly turns the goods over to avoid a threatened violence or other harm.One of the organizations that is Defender of the multilateral trading system is the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), which was founded in 1919 with an overriding aim that remains unchanged: to serve world business by promoting trade and investment, open markets for goods and services, and the free flow of capital. ICC published in 1996 "Revisions to the ICC Rules", which resulted in substantial progress has been made in addressing extortion and bribery in international business transactions. OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) released" Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials" was signed by 34 countries in Paris on December 17, 1997 and entered into force in 15 February 1999. The OECD has established a monitoring program to assure effective and consistent implementation and enforcement of the Convention.Other important anti-bribery initiatives have been launched by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the European Union, the Council of Europe, the Organization of American States, the Pacific Basin Economic Council, the Global Coalition for Africa and the United Nations. Below I present main recommendations of ICC concerning prevention illegal actions committed in transitions.Recommendations to Governments and International OrganizationsRecommendations for...

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