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Bureaucratic Reform In Indonesia Essay

1153 words - 5 pages

Public Administration Role in Implementation of Bureaucratic Reform in Indonesia

Bureaucratic reform is one of the government's efforts to achieve good governance. The experiences of many countries show that bureaucratic reform is the first step to achieve the advancement of a country. Bureaucratic reform is not only about the effectiveness and efficiency of the reform process in the bureaucracy, but also become the backbone in the life of the nation. Bureaucratic reform applied in ministries and government agencies in accordance with the demand of current conditions and situations. Nowadays, bureaucracy required to be able to serve the public in a timely, accurate and professional manner. ...view middle of the document...

Simplify the process in intergovernmental relationship and the relationship between government and the community towards the application of service excellence.
Bureaucratic reform is also a strategic step to develop human resources in the government to become professional, effective, and efficient in order to support the government and national development.

Literature Review

The Development of the Paradigm of Public Administration

In public administration theory, there are three perspectives or paradigms which agreed by the experts. Denhardt & Denhardt (2002) stated that the three paradigms in the public administration are old public administration, new public management, and new public service which can be grouped into three time order:

1. The Public Administration / The Old Bureaucracy (before 1970)
In this era, the philosophy embraced the political theory where politics and administration matters could not be separated. There are many philosophers in this era such as Confusius, Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Montesqueiu, Rousseau, and John Stuart Mill, where their principles are:
 the public server must have a good moral;
 the government must have a good paternalistic relationship, and become a good model to its subordinates;
 emphasize on the loyalty of subordinates who are able to help authorities;
 restrict government's intervention in the local and personal affairs;
 emphasize on formal bureaucratic procedure in management and public service;
 there is a dichotomy between politics and administrative;
 efficiency is needed in public organizations;

2. New Public Management (1970 - 2003)
In this era, the philosophy embraced the economic theory. Run the government like a business or manage a business approach with government and the private sector, with its principles among others:
 use business approach in the public sector (run government like a business);
 application of the principle of good governance;
 activities which cannot be done efficiently and effectively by the government are handled by the private sector;
 carried out the management system in the civil service system, which allowed managers to negotiate their contracts with the workers;
 focusing budget systems on performance and outcome;
 results-oriented management;
 initiated the concept of citizens charter;
 introduced the concept of reinventing government;
 create works better and costs less government;

3. New Public Service (2003 - present)
In this era, the philosophy embraces the theory of democracy. Run the government as a democracy emphasizing on serving citizens, not customer; seek the public interest; and appreciate the value of citizenship over entrepreneurship. The government's role in running the administration holds the following principles:
 public administrators more heard than said (more listening than telling);
 public administrators more serve than direct (more serving than steering);
 cooperation...

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