Culture can be seen as a basis for understanding and assessment of human activities and areas of interest, and has been defined by many scholars in different aspects. However, they still have many similarities which often reflect the religious and historical. In the past fifty years, there have been dramatic growths in the economic and political communications across the country, and the immigrants result interleaving or collision across cultures (Tung, 2008). As a result, if the decision makers misunderstood or ignored cultural backgrounds of different nations, it might probably be a high risk of the collapse of the enterprise. In this period of international business, it is essential to comprehend and adapt to cross-cultural issues by the use of the Internet. In global markets, especially with organizations in another country, culture has become critical to the success of the corporation. It must be dealt with cohesion and wisdom. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to compare the three cross-cultural researches from a commercial perspective, to identify cultural differences affect the way of doing business internationally. The results of business ethics and cultural differences will be talked in the two sections of this article.
Quantitative research has been used in all of the three articles. They have largely been based on questionnaires and focus on group discussions. The data in the article from Rashid & Ibrahim (2008) were analyzed by descriptive statistics, such as standard deviation, Chi-square tests, t-test, one-way ANOVA & MANOVA. In addition, Chi-square tests have been also used by Ralston & Pearson (2010) during the research as well. Furthermore, there have been great differences among the sample sizes of the articles. The data from Kuntz & Nabirukhina (2013) were collected through an online questionnaire issued in New Zealand and Moscow in Russia. The complete and valuable replications were offered by total 159 New Zealand residents and 150 Russia residents. While, the constitute availability of the SIE was tested by Ralston & Pearson (2010) with 4113 items among 30 countries. And then they attempted to select a sample size of respondents from each country at about 150. Rashid & Ibrahim (2008) built up a questionnaire with a complete structure of scripts on distinct respects of business ethics, and totally over 900 questionnaires were self-tested by the junior and senior students from Malaysia, China and India, which taking the subject of commerce in a national university. However, only 767 respondents from the total have been taken as samples for the final research.
The Influences of Cultural differences on Business Ethics
The role of different culture is one of the factors emerged as a key influence that shaping ethical business in this review. Kuntz & Nabirukhina (2013) found that with the relevant industries and professional culture, these variables in determining the strength of...