Why is corporate finance important to all managers?
Corporate finance is a specific area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools as well as analyses used to make these decisions. The primary goal of corporate finance is to enhance corporate value, without taking excessive financial risks.
A corporation's management's primary responsibility is to maximize the shareholder's wealth which translates to stock price maximization.
Corporate finance provides the skills managers need in order to:
Identify and select the corporate strategies and individual projects that add value to their firm- Capital Budgeting
Forecast the funding requirements of their company, and devise strategies for acquiring those funds- Capital Structure
An appropriate capital structure is a critical decision for any business organization. The decision is important not only because of the need to maximize returns to various organizational constituencies, but also because of the impact such a decision has on an organization's ability to deal with its competitive environment.
Capital budgeting is the planning process used to determine a firm's long term investments such as new machinery, replacement machinery, new plants, new products, and research and development projects. Many formal methods are used in capital budgeting, including discounted cash flow techniques such as net present value, internal rate of return using the incremental cash flows from each potential investment, or project.
Describe the organizational forms a company might have as it evolves from a startup to a mayor corporation. List advantages and disadvantages of each form.
A startup company implies the companies that have been in business for about ten years or less. It cease to be a startup as it passes various milestones, such as becoming profitable, or becoming publicly traded in an IPO, or via a merger or acquisition.
In practice business operations are financed by the owners, but sometimes businesses are financed by venture capital firms.
Venture capital is capital typically provided by outside investors for financing of new, growing or stagnating businesses. They are characterized as risky investments.
Before developing a final product, venture capitalists do not invest into business.
In the first stage the financing venture has finally launched and achieved initial traction. Sales are trading upwards. The funding from this stage is used to fuel the sales, reach the breakeven point, increase productivity, and cut unit costs. At this point the company is two or three years old. This is the stage when the venture capitalists get into business.
At second stage of financing, sales are starting to grow rapidly. The company is also rapidly accumulating accounts receivable and inventory. Capital from this stage is used for funding expansion in all its forms from meeting increasing marketing expenses to entering new markets to finance rapidly...