By 1849 The Supporters Of The Risorgimento Had Achieved Nothing Towards Creating A Free, United And Independent Italy. How Far Would You Agree?

1652 words - 7 pages

The Risorgimento movement in the Italian states is usually defined as beginning in 1815 following the new territorial and political arrangements imposed by the Congress of Vienna 1815. The Congress was called to decide upon a new system to replace the system of French domination over large parts of Europe set up under the Napoleonic Empire and also aimed to try and create a system to keep the peace in Europe.The Risorgimento, or rebirth, came about as a consequence of the widespread dissatisfaction, among the people living in the Italian states, with the arrangements made by the powers at Vienna. During the period 1815 to 1849 considerable changes came about in what Metternich had describes at Vienna as "a geographical expression" but the fundamental purpose of the Risorgimento, unification of the several Italian states into a single new nation, remained unachieved.Opposition to the Vienna settlement, and the restoration of monarchy in the Italian states that resulted, was widespread. French dominated republican states were replaced by Austrian dominated restored monarchies, with the exception of the Papal States, and much of the development and achievement made possible by and under the French, was reversed. The Italians has simply exchanged one oppressive foreign presence with another. The newly restored monarchies relied, for the most part, on Austrian troops to keep themselves in power.Due to the Austrian oppression most of the opposition was driven underground but flourished in the secret societies, such as the Carbonari, that were devoted to creating an independent Italian state. These secret societies faced many difficulties including the fact that they were illegal. Thus they were viewed by the Austrians and the monarchs as terrorists. The fact that we refer to many secret societies also illustrates another fundamental problem for the Risorgimento. That is the lack of agreement as to what form any Italian nation should take.There were three basic models but none of them attracted mass support or became more dominant than the others.The extremists, the radicals and the monarchists all disagreed as to the best form of government for a new Italian state. Mazzini was quick to propose a new movement known as Young Italy that he envisaged as being the leaders in the creation of a new democratic republic. He had visions of this new movement not only leading the way to unification but also moving beyond that as the leaders of a movement, that he called Young Europe, to unify the states of Europe as well.The followers of the ideas of Gioberti favoured a republic under the leadership of the Pope as they saw the power and influence of the Catholic Church as something that was a common link for all catholic Italian people. The followers of Balbo's and D'Azeglio's ideas favoured the establishment of a constitutional monarchy that would be based around the King of Piedmont-Sardinia, arguably the most powerful and important of the post-Vienna Italian...

Find Another Essay On By 1849 the supporters of the Risorgimento had achieved nothing towards creating a free, united and independent Italy. How far would you agree?

How far do you agree with the view that the tragedies in ‘Ethan Frome’ and ‘A View from the Bridge’ are brought about by individual characters rather

2216 words - 9 pages characters, the audience, the plot and the title and shows how they all relate to one another and were carefully considered by Miller. With the aid of a narrator the audience are engaged into the story and are profoundly aware that in Eddie's case, it is his free will being tested by determinism. Free will is a representation of the individual characters themselves but the test of determinism causes them to fall into the trap of an egocentric

The so-called 'Road Map to Peace' looks in many ways more like a 'Road Map to War'. How far would you agree with this assessment of US efforts to settle the Palestinian Question?

2845 words - 11 pages On September 17 2002 the Bush Administration made the unprecedented move of acknowledging the Palestinian right to a state - the first time any US government had done so, and with the backing of the UN, the EU and Russia (the 'quartet') the 'Road Map to Peace' was shaped - a plan that would result in an independent Palestinian state alongside Israel. It is no secret that the US have been a strong supporter of Israel. The legitimacy of a US

How Far Do You Agree That the Policy of Appeasement Was the Main Cause of WWII?

1949 words - 8 pages League of Nations. In 1939 war broke out and the League of Nations closed down and remained closed throughout the war. On 12 April 1946 The League of Nations had one final meeting to formally abolish itself. How far was the Policy of Appeasement the biggest cause of WWII? I agree that the Policy of Appeasement was the biggest cause of WWII to a major extent. However, the Policy of Appeasement was not the only cause of WWII; there were many

"The Catholics were never a serious threat to Elizabethan Church and State." How far do you agree with this statement?

1773 words - 7 pages and weakened during Mary's reign, could not have hoped to pose such a formidable challenge to Elizabeth in the 1560s. By 1566, Elizabeth was suggesting ships be searched for smuggled Catholic books. However, it swiftly transpired that the Catholics had nothing to put their organisation towards. The fact that the Pope offered no decisive guidance on the event of Elizabeth's ascension was hugely detrimental to the size of the Catholic threat: they

"The benefits of globalization outweigh its cost." How far do you agree with this statement?

1478 words - 6 pages Fund . "Benefits" is defined as "advantage or profit" and "cost" is defined as the "effort or loss necessary to achieve something" by the Oxford dictionary of Current English.We agree to a large extent to the statement, "The benefits of globalization outweigh its cost." Even though there are some disadvantages in the process of globalization, but the benefits that the world receive far outweighs the costs of it. We have to look at the bigger

'Germany was economically united a decade before she came politically united.' How far do you agree with this statement?

925 words - 4 pages Austrian (Hapsburg) Empire as they where part of the Confederation. But if we take this as when Germany was politically united because during this time the Diet and the War of Liberation (against Napoleon) were the only signs of any form of a united Germany and the diet was so ineffectual because every single representative had to agree on any action taken by the diet ' for representatives were more concerned with safeguarding the interests and the

Metternich has been referred to as the greatest challenge to German Nationalism in the so-called 'Vormarz' years. How far would you agree?

1014 words - 4 pages way that it became impossible for it to become an embryonic state. The new Confederation compromised of 39 small states, and had a central institution known as the Diet. It was clear early on that very little would be achieved by the Diet; no measure could be passed unless every government agreed to it, which rarely happened, as most ambassadors were not thinking about working for the Confederation as a whole entity, rather they were working to

"The real interest in Medea is that Euripides can make Medea so appalling without losing our sympathy for her." How far would you agree with this comment?

715 words - 3 pages Euripides' Medea confronts the moral theme of vengeance and justice. Its central character Medea is a passionate woman whom strides on fury and irrationality. In this play, the battle between passion and cold logic takes place through Medea and Jason, each attempting to convey their own arguments to the audience (the Corinthenian women). Euripides, however, succeeds in attaining our sympathy towards Medea despite witnessing the appalling crimes

The League Of Nations - A Success In The 20’s, A Failure In The 30’s. How Far Do You Agree With This Satement?

534 words - 2 pages League as he had always despised the organisation. Then in 1935 Italy invaded Abyssinia, the League tried to stop them via. economic sanctions but did not include oil so they failed. After that the League was not taken seriously.The failure of the League Of Nations can also be placed on one important factor- the USA. The United States Of America did not join the League because President Wilson has a disagreement with the US Senate over the league

How far do you agree with the statement that Amir only saw Hassan as a servant not a friend.

939 words - 4 pages though Amir resented Baba's and Hassan's relationship you cannot doubt that it did not change his views towards Hazara's.Amir could have seen Hassan as a servant as he constantly refers to him as a object or even a sacrifice. "Assef was right: Nothing was free in this world. Maybe Hassan was the price I had to pay, the lamb I had to slay, to win Baba." This shows how Amir could have seen Hassan as an object or even something he owned. "the price

'Faustus' final soliloquy becomes a recapitulation and inversion of his first soliloquy.' How far do you agree?

851 words - 3 pages Renaissance thinkers believed that an animal had no soul, so by wishing that, Faustus would have no soul that would be sent to Heaven. These examples show how the text transforms the excitement felt by Faustus in his opening soliloquy of the play, to immeasurable horror and dread at his impending doom at the end. The same amount of emotion is present, but Faustus's actual feelings are wholly opposed.The ease with which the audience recognises

Similar Essays

How Far Do You Agree That The Cold War Was Caused By An Unnecessary Fear And Suspicion That Each Side Had For The Other?

726 words - 3 pages was extended to nations in Western Europe, such as France and Italy who had strong Communist parties and also put into place because of Greece's revolution and overthrow of their monarchy and to a lesser extent, Turkey, who too were fueling the U.S.A's fears.The Soviets viewed this as an ominous expansionist policy on the part of the United States and increased their suspicion and mistrust; hence COMINFORM was set up to assure that none of the

"The English Teacher" By Rk Narayan: How Far Would You Agree With The Statement: "Dr. Shankar Is To Be Blamed For Susila's Death"?

871 words - 3 pages "dreading malaria- the most erratic and temperamental things on earth", when he had earlier been so confident of curing Susila's supposed malaria illness. Dr. Shankar has a way with words, in addition to having a glib tongue which says the words patients want to hear most according to their predicaments. When it was malaria, he sounded so confident. When it turned out to be typhoid, he still remains as confident. How can one accept a doctor who

'the Most Important Reason Why There Was Little Opposition In Germany Towards The Nazi Regime Was Its Use Of Propaganda' Explain How Far You Agree With This Statement?

3809 words - 15 pages 'The most important reason why there was little opposition in Germany towards the Nazi regime was its use of propaganda' Explain how far you agree with this statement?Hitler's use of propaganda was very effective. It was in important factor to why there was little or no position in Nazi Germany from 1933-45; however it wasn't the only reason. Propaganda was a very powerful tool; Hitler used it to indoctrinate the German people with his Nazi

"The Most Important Reason Why There Was Little Opposition In Germany Towards The Nazi Regime Was Its Use Of Propaganda" How Far Do You Agree With This Statement?

1207 words - 5 pages life, the greatness of Hitler, the way of life for a true Nazi especially the children. Leni Riefenstahl was a woman Hitler had a great respect for and she was given a free hand to produce Nazi propaganda films.At no time up to 1933, did the Nazi party win an election by a majority of votes. They therefore, needed to convince those who opposed them that they were the better party and that there really was no other choice. While informing and